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Solubility, Kidney Stones, CSI Essay

Objective
To conduct an experiments to determine solubility of ionic compounds in different solute-solute and solvent solute interactions.

Description
We will be mixing ionic compounds in solute-solute and solvent solute interactions. We will be combining sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, nickel and silver and some anions like chloride, sulfate, nitrate, oxalate, phosphate, and hydroxide. We will be seeing which one forms a precipitate or rings. Most likely the anions will be the insoluble. From there we will be making a flow chart that will go accordingly to our experiment.

Materials
Test tubes or containers to mix compounds, Anions reagents, Cation reagents

Safety
Wear goggles , Follow instructors rules at all times, Don’t eat anything or drink, no horse playing in the lab

Pre Lab Questions

1. Salts of higher valence cations (2+ or higher) are insoluble, unless they are chlorides or nitrates. Cations of +1 charge are soluble, except for silver. However, silver nitrates are soluble. Hydroxide salts of cations of
+3 charge or higher are insoluble, except at low pH.

2. Precipitate is formed when substance is insoluble. The solubility rules determine whether a substance is soluble or insoluble.

3. You can prevent precipitates by following the solubility rules. Most insoluble contain Ag, Pb, Cu, Hg

4. Some factors that can make precipitates more soluble is heating, stirring, or simply adding more solvent.

5. Yes, the size of the crystal has a huge impact on the solubility process. For example the bigger the crystal the more time it would take to dissolve. It would also take more heat, more stirring and more lolvent for the crystal to completely dissolve.

6. Any solution with a pH of 7 and higher is an alkaline solution. Also you look to see if any of the group one alkali metals are included in the solution.

7. Most salts are soluble however the level of solubility is based on the Ksp values. The higher the value of Ksp the more soluble the salt is. Oron (II) hydroxide is insoluble and the Ksp is 2.5*10^-37. Cadium hydroxide is insoluble and the Ksp is 5.3*10^-15.

Procedure
Place 3-5 drops of each compound is mixed with equal amounts of each one of the other remaining compounds. Record the observations made from the reactions.

Unknown: Place 3-5 drops of the unknown compound mixed in a test tube with equal amounts of one of the remaining compounds in. record observations. Repeat until the unknown compound has been mixed with each of the other compounds.


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