1. List and describe three main capabilities or tool of a DBMS: A data definition capability to specify the structure of the content of the database. This capability would be used to create database tables and to define the characteristics of the fields in each table. A data dictionary to store definitions of data elements in the database and their characteristics. In large corporate databases, the data dictionary may capture additional information, such as usage; ownership; authorization; security; and the individuals, business functions, programs, and reports that use each data element. A data manipulation language, such as SQL, that is used to add, change, delete, and retrieve the data in the database. This language contains commands that permit end users and programming specialists to extract data from the database to satisfy information requests and develop applications.
2. Why is software quality important to security? What specific steps can an organization take to ensure software quality?
Software errors pose a constant threat to information systems, causing untold losses in productivity. Growing complexity and size of software programs, coupled with demands for timely delivery to markets, have contributed to an increase in software flaws or vulnerabilities. A major problem with software is the presence of hidden bugs or program code defects. Studies have shown that it is virtually impossible to eliminate all bugs from large programs. Flaws in commercial software not only impede performance but also create security vulnerabilities that open networks to intruders. To correct software flaws once they are identified, the software vendor creates small pieces of software called patches to repair the flaws without disturbing the proper operation of the software. Organizations must maintain best efforts to both make sure purchased software is up to date and make sure their own software and programming is as bug-free as possible by employing software metrics and rigorous software testing. Ongoing use of metrics allows the information systems department and end users to jointly measure the performance of the system and identify problems as they occur.
Early, regular, and thorough testing will contribute significantly to system quality. Good testing begins before a software program is even written by using a walkthrough– a review of a specification or design document by a small group of people carefully selected based on the skills needed for the particular objectives being tested. Once developers start writing software programs, coding walkthroughs also can be used to review program code. However, code must be tested by computer runs. When errors are discovered, the source is found and eliminated through a process called debugging.
3. What has made the Google search engine so successful?
The biggest reason for Google’s success is that they provide the best search results for their users. Actually, their search engine is frequently used by various kinds of web sites. The reason why many people believe the quality of function is they are constantly updating their search algorithm and ensure that when you search for something you will get the best and most relevant results.
4. What additional complexities are faced in global supply chains? How does the Internet help in managing global supply chains? Global supply chains typically span greater geographic distances and time differences than domestic supply chains and have participants from a number of different countries. Although the purchase price of many goods might be lower abroad, there are often additional costs for transportation, inventory, and local taxes or fees. Performance standards may vary from region to region or from nation to nation. Supply chain management may need to reflect foreign government regulations and cultural differences. All of these factors impact how a company takes orders, plans distribution, organizes warehousing, and manages inbound and outbound logistics throughout the global markets it services. The Internet helps companies manage many aspects of their global supply chains, including sourcing, transportation, communications, and international finance. As goods are being sourced, produced, and shipped, communication is required among retailers, manufacturers, contractors, agents, and logistics providers. Many, especially smaller companies, still share product information over the phone, via e-mail, or through faxes. These methods slow down the supply chain and also increase errors and uncertainty. With Internet technology, supply chain members can communicate through a Web-based system.
5. Describe the overall prfcess and main decisions involved in planning a new e-commerce site. There are two main challenges to building an e-commerce site. The first is to clearly identify the business objectives of the site. The second is to select the right technologies for achieving those objective. Once you have determined the objectives of the site, you will need to establish the system functionalities. For example, if you were planning an e-tailing site, once functionality you would need be a shopping art. Once all of the intended capabilities of the site are understood, you can then define the information requirement needed build the site. For example, an information requirement for building a shopping cart is a method to secure credit cards. Other major planning issues include selecting a team build the site, and selecting the site’s design and any social or information policies at the site. You will to decide if any development or hosting will be out outsourced or whether you will build the site from a software package. Many of these decisions will depend on the budget allocated for the site.