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Sodium Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Sodium acetate

Claim: Relatively pure isoamyl acetate was isolated by elimination reaction as compared to the SN2 reaction. Evidence1: A flask containing isoamyl bromide (6 ml, 0. 050 mole) and potassium acetate (6 g, 0. 05 mole) in 10 ml of dimethyl formamide was positioned in a steam bath and then mounted on a magnetic stirrer. The mixture was heated and magnetically stirred simultaneously for two hours. A white precipitate was found at the bottom of the solution. The mixture was set to cool and 15 ml of cool water was then added to the mixture. The entire precipitate dissolved in the mixture and the content of the flask now got transformed into a clear colorless solution. The mixture was then washed…

Beta-Galactosidase and Western Blot

1. EMG 9 and EMG 26 contain strain _lac-_(I- Z+ Y+) and strain _lac -_ (I+ Z- Y-)respectively.Three genes huddled together on the chromosome are required for two strains of _E.coli_ to utilize lactose.Consisting of three genes, namely, _lacZ_, _lacY_ and _lacA_, the _lac_ operon orderly handles these genes to code specific enzymes necessary for the metabolism of lactose. The genes _lacZ_, _lacY_ and _lacI_ would code for beta-galactosidase, galactosidase permease and _lac_ repressor respectively. Regulation of _lac_ operon is also tight and the operon’s negative control is made possible by _lac_ repressor (Hill, 1996). With the presence of _lac_ repressor, _lac_ operon will be deactivated and will remain on this state unless acted upon by lactose. Consequently, transcribing the…

Foam Stored Pressure Fire Extinguisher

Introduction The fire extinguisher is a portable device used to put out fires of limited size. Such fires are grouped into four classes, according to the type of material that is burning. Class A fires include those in which ordinary combustibles such as wood, cloth, and paper are burning. Class B fires are those in which flammable liquids, oils, and grease are burning. Class C fires are those involving live electrical equipment. Class D fires involve combustible metals such as magnesium, potassium, and sodium. Each class of fire requires its own type of fire extinguisher. Foam extinguishers use an aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) agent that expels a layer of foam when it is discharged through a nozzle. It acts…

This is a chemistry lab report

Introduction In this lab exercise we will evaluate the effectiveness of several indicators for the determination of the point of completion of a specific acid-base neutralization reaction. We will also determine the unknown concentration of the strong base NaOH by its reaction with a known amount of the weak acid, potassium acid phtalate (HKC8H4O4, abbreviated KHP). This will be accomplished using the titration method. The KHP solution will be created and its volume and concentration recorded. The KHP solution will be poured in a flask along with a few drops of one of three indicators we will be evaluating. The NaOH solution will be poured into a buret (with volume markers) and will be used as the titrant. The strong…

Investigating stoichiometry

In this experiment we are going to get a better understanding of chemical stoichiometry. We are going to be reacting sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) with hydrochloric acid (HCl). To start off the mass of two unknown substances (being the sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate) will be taken. We will need to construct balanced equations for both of the reactants with the HCl and use this to guide us to figure out how much HCl will be needed to react with each of the unknown substances. When this part is through we will then need to find the percent yield (actual yield/theoretical yield x 100). Determining the mass of sodium chloride at the end of the experiment is…

Separation of a mixture of solids

The Discussion of this experiment began with discussing how many materials we use today are actually mixtures of pure substances. The separation of these materials into their pure substances can be quite challenging. When we are discussing separations of a mixture that contains pure substances, it all depends on whether you can separate the substances by physical means. That means, utilizing each substances physical properties such as boiling point, melting point, and magnetism. Separation of a Mixture of Solids Lab Report Assistant To begin this experiment I got out me scale and little plastic dish and the mixture of substances. I weighed the dish separate and found it to weigh 0.5g. Next I added the mixture to my dish and…

Impure Sodium Carbonate

Introduction: To determine the total amount of carbonate in unrefined sodium carbonate, soda ash, a titration is done using a standardized solution of HCl. Aqueous HCl is a strong acid and therefore almost completely disassociates into H+ and CL-. Therefore, when HCl is used in a titration, the H+ is the titrant. Carbonate in aqueous solution is able to accept a proton, i.e. it acts as a base. When carbonate accepts the H+ a bicarbonate ion is formed. Na2CO3(aq) + HCl(aq)  NaHCO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) This is not the complete reaction for the titration because bicarbonate is able to accept one more proton. This reaction produces carbonic acid which decomposes to sodium chloride, water and carbon dioxide. NaHCO3(aq) + HCl(aq)…

Microscale Techniques

1. NaOH is a very corrosive chemical and contact with it can cause burns to body tissue and possible eye damage. Can irriate the lungs and can cause permanent lung damage. also contact with water can generate enought heat to ignite combustibles. 2. In your own words, briefly explain the terms below. Copied answers will receive zero points. a. equilibrium state When a chemical reaction is equal. when the products and reactients are at equal rates b. the effect of formation of a complex a complex is a term used to describe a substance compused of two other substances.When pushing two substances together they can form a complex which is usually weaker than a regular chemical bond 3. A student is…

Star Apple (Chrysophyllum cainito) as an Antiseptic Mouthwash

a. Background of the Study As an effective mouthwash is one that does not only make the breath fresh but also serves as an antiseptic. It should not simply mask the effective mouth odor caused by excessive activity of anaerobic bacteria inhabiting the mouth. There is a need to prevent the increase in the population. b. Statement of the Problem A mouthwash is a solution in addition to regular oral hygiene methods such as brushing and flossing. Alternative mouth gargles can be prepared from locally available plants such as herbs and fruit bearing ones. Certain plant parts may have active ingredients that have antimicrobial activity. An example is the peppermint that contains essential oils found to be efficient in neutralizing…

Homemade Lava Lamp

My science project is on the No Light Lava Lamp. I will record what happens when I mix vegetable oil and water in an empty water bottle. Most materials are classified into two different categories in relationship to the way they mix water. Hydrophobic substances are chemically unable to mix with water (the word hydrophobic means “water-fearing”). Hydrophilic (meaning “water-loving”) substances, can easily dissolve in water. In addition to the density difference, the reason that you will always see a distinct oil layer above the water layer is because of oil’s hydrophobic nature. Vegetable oil is a fatty substance obtained from certain plants. Manufactures obtain most vegetable oils from seeds and fruits. Most of these oils are liquids, but a…

Identification of an Unknown Organic Acid

Abstract Identifying this organic acid was an extensive task that involved several different experiments. Firstly, the melting point had to be determined. Since melting point can be determined to an almost exact degree, finding a close melting point of the specific unknown can accurately point to the identification of the acid. In this case the best melting point range was 207-209 degrees Celsius. Melting point, while very helpful in identifying an unknown organic acid, is simply not enough. Next, a series of titration experiments had to be done. In the first series, a titration is completed of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with KHP. Three reps were completed and the resulting data led to the finding of the molarity of the sodium…

Stoichiometry of a Precipitation Reaction

Abstract: In this experiment Stoichiometry of a Precipitation Reaction, the main objectives were to use stoichiometry to calculate the theoretical yield of CaCO3 that precipitates from the reaction between Calcium chloride, Dihydrate and Sodium carbonate, and then compare that value to the actual yield. In order to do this accurately, we must be able to measure the products and reactants with accuracy. The last objective of this experiment is to calculate the percent yield of the product produced. When 1.0 g of Calcium chloride was mixed with 0.80 g of sodium carbonate, it produced 0.70 g calcium carbonate, which was very close to the theoretical yield of 0.68 g. Experiment and Observation: The first step in this experiment was to…