The abstract is excellently presented, and sheds the light onto the study purpose. The author used the abstract to briefly justify the choice of the research country (Singapore). Introduction In the introduction, the author justified the need for such research by the fact that “little empirical research had been done outside of Europe and the USA”. The author has clearly identified the aim of the research in the form of a question: “what is the Internet usage pattern of young Singaporeans and what is the extent of its impact on their social lives?
” Literature review The author did not perform a detailed literature review due to the absence of sufficient relevant literary sources related to the topic of research. The author summarised the results of the previous studies to create the relevant theoretical basis for her research. Research question The author was not very specific in determining the research question. She limited her study by investigating the social interactions between young Singaporeans and the impact of Internet upon their socialisation.
Trying to be very specific, the author suggested that it would be interesting to research, whether young Singaporeans preferred Internet socialisation to traditional means of social interaction. Methodology The author did not create any clear hypotheses, and did not predict any possible research outcomes. The choice of respondents was mainly based on their age (between 15 and 30), without any specific attention to their gender or social position. However, it was important that all of them studied in Universities and were provided with individual Internet accounts.
The author used questionnaires which are traditional methods of qualitative analysis. Findings Research findings were presented in qualitative and quantitative form. The author did not mention any significant problems encountered in analysing and evaluating the research findings. The author did not perform profound statistical analysis, but used simple mathematical interpretations of her results as the basis for qualitative research. By quoting interviews with several research participants, the author of the article significantly increased the relevance of the research results.
References All in-text citations were referenced in bibliography. The reference list mainly included primary sources, among which previous researches in the area of Internet and communication prevailed. Summary The analysed study is the excellent basis for the further research in the area of communication and social sciences. The article determines the future directions in investigating the socialisation processes under the impact of Internet technologies. New for old? Converging media and e-mail practices in the workplace
Abstract The aim of the discussed research was to investigate the impact of e-mail applications on the workplace practices through the three different perspectives: “e-mail as a medium, e-mail as a set of practices, and e-mail as speech versus writing” (Yell, 2003). The author used the abstract to create the system of questions, which had to be answered during the research process. Introduction The topic of the research was excellently specified in the introduction, and was not too broad.
The author also delineated specific theories, on which the research had to be based (Bourdieu’s concepts of dispositions and the habitus, and Schirato and Yell’s concept of cultural literacy). Literature review The author did not use any formal framework for literature review. Moreover, the article lacked any theoretical justification of the study. A separate “background” chapter provided the reader only with a surface understanding of the research topic, and was not referred to any significant theoretical perspectives.
Research question The researcher sought to identify, what means research participants would choose to fulfill a range of tasks and to communicate at workplace. The author has clearly determined the research question and narrowed her research as determined in the article’s abstract. Methodology The methods of the research were clearly identified in the background section of the article: the use of interviews had to ensure validity of research findings, but could potentially decrease the generalisability of research results.
The age of participants was between 30 and 65, and they were asked to describe their communication and work preferences in terms of emails or other communication strategies. The author did not conceal statistical insignificance of the research sample, and has concentrated upon determining qualitative tendencies and validity of the communication choices made by participants. Findings Yell (2003) presented research findings in the form of qualitative assessment.
The use of tables was called for increasing the generalisability of interviews, but the author did not specify whether she had encountered any significant problems in evaluating the research results. The discussion section of the research was presented in the form of several small chapters, with each devoted to a separate research perspective. There is no reason to doubt the validity and reliability of research findings due to the fact that interviews are relatively unbiased tools of qualitative research.
The author constantly linked research findings to the theoretical perspectives identified in the introduction, which made the discussion relevant and theoretically justified. References All in-text citations were included into the list of references at the end of the article. Summary Despite the lack of theoretical basis, the author performed profound research of the communication preferences among workers. The results of the study can be further refined by linking them to certain theoretical perspective.
The researcher has generalised the research findings and pointed out the most important aspects of the study, without shedding the light onto potential applications of the research results. The author has identified important contradictions in describing e-mail as homogeneous medium, and has suggested that e-mail had to be analysed from multiple perspectives. Organisational communication satisfaction in the virtual workplace Abstract The abstract was excellently structured. It served a brief summary of the research, research findings, implications, and controversies.
Introduction The authors did not elaborate on theoretical or practical research implications in the introduction; the introduction served a brief summary of the similar research works. The potential challenges of the virtual workplace were identified and analysed in a separate section of the paper. Literature review The author did not perform any formal literature review. The authors did not make any predictions or suggestions towards the future research outcomes, but identified the set of variables drawn from the previous surveys.
That set of variables was later used to analyse and interpret the research findings. Research question The authors determined the research question in the article’s abstract: “to compare the levels of communication satisfaction between virtual workplace and traditional employers in a single firm. ” This research question was later analysed through the pre-determined set of variables. Methodology Akkirman and Harris used the set of hypotheses based on the previous studies and the research survey conducted “in the Turkish subsidiary of an international company based in Germany”.
The distinguishing feature of the research article was in that the authors had identified the exact set of variables closely tied to their hypotheses: communication climate, organisational integration, etc. (Akkirman & Harris, 2005). Findings The research findings were presented in quantitative form, in the form of tables, and statistical analysis. The results were assessed in a concise and organised manner, with each variable discussed and evaluated separately.
In this manner, the researchers have explained each variable identified in the research methodology section. References The reference list included all in-text citations, as well as the Appendix with the research survey questionnaire. This questionnaire helped objectively evaluate the relevance and validity of survey results. Summary The advantageous feature of the article is in the fact that the researchers discussed and evaluated the research results in the structured form: implications and limitations of the research were also analysed.
As the results of the research were contrary to the majority of previous studies, the authors emphasised the most important variables to be researched in the future studies (the role of transition and support in the level of satisfaction among virtual office workers). The authors of the article summarised their findings in conclusion, but did not identify any problems or biases they faced during the research and evaluation process. Intercultural communication competence and managerial functions within the Australian hospitality industry Abstract
The abstract was brief and written in concise manner. The authors briefly delineated major theoretical foundations of the future research. Introduction The aim of the research was very clearly identified in the introductory section of the article. The authors defined the major terms to be used in the study, making the research clear and understandable to the reader. Literature review The theoretical perspectives constituted the significant portion of the article, and initially made it difficult to identify the major theoretical directions which were used in the research.
It seems that the authors have gathered all information available on the topic, without specifying the most important data, and the exact theoretical basis of research. Theoretical background of intercultural communication was presented from different perspectives (cultural, psychological, anthropological, etc. ), which have created a confused theoretical image of the study. Ultimately, the researchers neither made theoretical predictions, nor drew hypotheses from previous studies. Research question The authors of the research sought to consider the nature of intercultural communication competence in the Australian hospitality industry.
Methodology The authors have limited their research methodology to in-depth analysis of interviews and organisational documentation, ethnomethodology, and historical analysis. In addition, the authors did not inform the readers about the number and characteristics of the research sample. A number of important research variables were identified only in the section devoted to the discussion of interpretive findings. Findings The research findings were interpreted through the prism of qualitative analysis, but as no data on the research sample was available, it was difficult to evaluate the validity and reliability of the research results.
It should be pointed out that the authors have discussed implications of their research for management training. Those implications could make their research results applicable, if their validity could be objectively assessed. The conclusion of the article was aimed at summarising the major research findings, and emphasising the limitations of the study: “the Australian hospitality managers in this study were found to have shortcomings in their ability to apply intercultural communication competence to key managerial functions” (Saunders & Sauee, 2000). References All in-text citations were referenced in bibliography.
The authors listed all literature sources in alphabetical order. Summary The research could create solid basis for future practical investigations if the theoretical perspectives were clearer. Research findings suggested that intercultural communication in the hospitality industry should be linked to a single theoretical perspective, that could make future researches more transparent and theoretically justified. Organisational websites. How and how well do they communicate? Abstract The author of the research used the abstract to determine the aim of the study, and to briefly justify the need for such research.
The author also suggested the need to perform further sophisticated analysis of Websites and communication challenges they face. Introduction The particularity of the discussed research is in the fact that it has appeared too personalised from the very beginning: The author initially turned it into a form of narration, which could be understandable even to a non-professional reader. Literature review The author did not perform any literature review; consequentially, the research findings could hardly be tied to any theoretical perspectives. Research question
The author has expressed the research purpose in the form of a question: “how are websites currently being described and analysed, particularly by researchers? ” The author has clearly underlined the criteria for choosing the research information, which ultimately served the research sample. That search was limited to formal business and general websites (Durham, 2000). Methodology The article did not have any separate section devoted to the discussion of the research methodology. As a result, the reader (either professional or non-professional) could not clearly understand how the research was conducted.
It is implied that the author of the article used qualitative analysis. However, as the exact methodology of the research was not explained, it was impossible to draw any conclusions as for the validity and reliability of the research findings. Findings The research findings lacked relevant theoretical basis and could hardly be systematised. Later in the article, the author recognised the lack of theoretical frameworks, but the research could significantly benefit of a separate section devoted to literature review. References The author has included the long list of literary sources, used in the research.
The author utilised both primary and secondary sources of scientific information related to the research topic. Summary The research conclusion was brief, and was also written in the simple (and rather vague) form, which is not characteristic of the majority of scientific works in the area of communication strategies. “The overview of current work suggests rich areas for future research: site macrostructure, navigation and issues of intertextuality via the linkages made, etc” – the list of those suggestions was useful for the future studies.
Due to the evident lack of theoretical basis, the discussed research looked as a system of practical suggestions, which might become the starting point in the creation of the valid theoretical structure in the area of communicational strategies. References Akkirman, AD & Harris, DL 2005, Organisational communication satisfaction in the virtual workplace, Journal of Management Development, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 397-409. Durham, M 2000, Organisational websites. How and how well do they communicate? Australian Journal of Communication, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 1-14. Frey, LR, Bolan, Carl H, Fredman, PG & Krep, GL 1992, Interpreting
communication research: a case study approach, Prentice Hall, pp. 15-19. Goby, VP 2000, Social interaction and the Internet in Asia, A study of young Singaporeans, Australian Journal of Communication, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 79-90. Saunders, S & Saee, J 2000, Intercultural communication competence and managerial functions within the Australian hospitality industry, Australian Journal of Communication, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 111-128. Yell, S 2003, New for old? Converging media and e-mail practices in the workplace, Australian Journal of Communication, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 93-107.