Following a severe spinal cord injury in the lumbar region, the voluntary muscles of the legs and hips will be paralyzed. Describe the effects of paralysis on the skeleton. 2. A 5 month old infant is brought to a clinic after having diarrhea for 2 days. The nurse checks the baby’s anterior fontanel and notices that it appears sunken.
What has caused this Chapter 7 Muscular System
An exercise for skiers involves sitting against a wall as if you were sitting in a chair, but without a chair. Thighs should be parallel to the floor and the knees should make a 90 degree angle. Try it. What kind of exercise is this? Which muscles are doing most of the work (which ones begin to hurt)? Which do you think would be easier: 3 minutes of this exercise or 3 minutes of jogging? Explain. 2. Find some old tennis balls or any type of similar object and try juggling two balls with one hand, or three balls with two hands. Explain how muscle sense is involved in juggling.
Module 5 Nervous System
1. Sam has been smoking for years and finally wants to quit. His provider prescribes wellbutrin, a medication that binds nicotine receptors. How might this be effective? 2. A 16 year old is scheduled to give a speech in high school. She gets very nervous and almost passes out. The school nurse gives her a paper bag to breathe into for a few minutes. Why would this be helpful?
Module 6 Endocrine System
1. Alice is a 70 year old woman with low vitamin D levels who recently broke a hip. She has osteoporosis. She was given several medications to try to improve bone density, however, they were unsuccessful as she could not tolerate the medications. What hormone might she be given to treat the osteoporosis? How does this medication help? How would this be effected by a low TSH? 2. Darren is a 15 year old, tall for his age, but he wants to build more muscle. He decides that he will eat only protein foods, because he says, “muscle is protein, so protein will make protein, and the more protein, the more muscle.” In part he is correct, and in part incorrect. Explain, and name the hormones involved in protein metabolism; state how each affects protein metabolism.
3. Kay and Lucia are best friends and enjoy spending time together over the holidays decorating and preparing for visits by their extended family. Kay recently visited her physician for an annual check-up and received news that she was pre-diabetic and that she should monitor her calorie intake, especially with the holidays close at hand. Kay was troubled by the news but Lucia was even more so since she had been admonishing Kay for unhealthy eating and exercise habits for years.
Lucia was also particularly distressed because she has worn an insulin pump since she was nine years old. Kay’s remark about the news was, “Well, Lucia, this is great, now I can be even more like you!” Using your knowledge of the endocrine system explain how Kay’s comment is correct but also how the types of diabetes they each have (or are at risk of having in Kay’s case) differ. What nutrition and exercise related habits might put Kay at increased risk for developing diabetes? How can healthcare providers help Kay reduce her risk of diabetes?
Module 7 Blood
1. In professional cycling “blood doping” was reportedly performed by some of the athletes. Blood doping is the transfusion of one’s own blood back to oneself, when it is not needed. Thinking about the normal red blood cells, why would an individual do this procedure? What is the danger? Another method a cyclist might use is the administration of erythropoietin (EPO). Why would they use this as a medication? 2. Explain why type AB+ blood may be called the “universal recipient” for blood transfusions. Explain why this would not be true if the transfusion required 6 units (about 3 liters) of blood.
Module 8 Lymphatic and Immunity
1. In Rh disease of the newborn, maternal antibodies enter fetal circulation and destroy the red blood cells of the fetus. A mother with type O blood has anti-A and anti-B antibodies, but may have a dozen type A children without any problem at all. Explain why. 2. Everyone should have a tetanus booster shot every 10 years. That is what we often call a “tetanus shot”. Someone who sustains a soil-contaminated injury should also receive a tetanus
booster (if none in the past 10 years.) But someone who has symptoms of tetanus should get TIG, tetanus immune globulin. Explain the difference, and why TIG is so important.