Standard English” is the literary dialect used in formal writing and in the speech of well educated persons. It descends from the West Saxon dialect of Old English, specifically the dialect of London. “Non-standard English” includes many regional dialects, whose grammatical forms and words ( such as ain’t and varmint, for example) are not exactly incorrect but are unsuited to formal discourse; and the non-regional dialect known as Black English ( or Ebonics ) which has a prominent substrate of African grammar. There is another literary dialect called Scots ( or Lallands or Doric ) which is considered non-standard because descends from the Anglic dialect of Old English, not the Saxon.
VERBS: Principal Parts
The three principal parts of verbs are the present tense form, the past tense form, and the past participle. (The present participle or “-ing” form is sometimes considered a fourth principal part.) Present Tense indicates an action in the present:Now the class begins.She walks to class. Past Tense indicates an action that occurred in the past:We wanted to see the show.She blew a bubble. The Past Participle can be used as an adjective or modifier. It is typically formed by adding ‘d’ or ‘ed’ to the base form. Many times, this form is identical to the past tense of the verb:
Present Tense| Past Tense| Past Participle|
drink| drank| drunk|
be| was, were| been|
eat| ate| eaten|
see| saw| seen|
swim| swam| swum|
Auxiliary or helping verbs are verbs that are used to help form verb phrases but cannot do so independently. There are four basic auxiliary verb groups: to be to have modal auxiliaries to do This auxiliary verb is used in the progressive tenses and passive voice: Progressive Tense: You are kicking. You were kicking. You have been kicking. Passive Voice: You are kicked. You were kicked. You have been kicked.