1.1 & 1.2-Define the following types of abuse…
signs of physical abuse are
Unexplained weight loss
Assault (can be intentional or reckless)
Loss of sleep
Unexpected or unexplained change in behaviour
Soreness around the genitals
Torn, stained or bloody underwear
A preoccupation with anything sexual
Sexually transmitted diseases
Rape – e.g. a male member of staff having sex with a Mental Health client (see Mental Health Act 1983) Indecent Assault
Loss of sleep
Unexpected or unexplained change in behaviour
Deprivation of liberty could be false imprisonment. Aggressive shouting causing fear of violence in a public place may be an offence against Public Order Act 1986, or harassment under the Protection from Harassment Act 1997 Financial abuse.
Unexplained withdrawals from the bank
Unusual activity in the bank accounts
Unexplained shortage of money
Reluctance on the part of the person with responsibility for the funds to provide basic food and clothes etc. Fraud
Inflexible and non-negotiable systems and routines
Lack of consideration of dietary requirements
Name calling; inappropriate ways of addressing people
Lack of adequate physical care – an unkempt appearance
Not undertaking personal hygiene which endangers their health Not maintaining adequate levels of sanitation which endangers their health or wellbeing and that of others.
Not eating healthily or taking prescribed medication
Neglecting their home environment
Not disposing of rubbish
Poor household hygiene resulting in infestation or infection to self or others Substance misuse
Neglect by others
Bruises (old and new, clustered on one part of body, or on both upper arms) Burns
Cuts or scars
Marks left by a gag (or some form of restraint)
Imprint injuries (eg., marks shaped like fingers, thumbs, hands, belts or sticks) Missing teeth
Spotty balding (from pulled hair)
Eye injuries (black eyes or detached retinas)
Abrasions or scrapes
Vaginal or rectal pain
Bleeding from the ears, nose or mouth
Frequent urinary tract infections or yeast infections
Abrasions, bleeding, or bruising in the genital area
Frequent sore throats
Sudden difficulty walking or sitting
1.3-Descirbe factors that may contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuse…
factors may include if the individual has a mental disability such as dementia or not having mental capacity. If the individual is secluded or isolated or are vulnerable. There could also be factors for the abuser which could include the abuser having lack of training, also abusing their power. sometimes personal issues have a part to play which could include the carer/abuser being stressed or having a history of abuse and continuing the cycle
2.1-Explain the actions to take if there are suspicions that an individual is being abused. Note down the signs/injuries and report it to the manager as soon as possible.
2.2-Explain the actions to take if an individual alleges that they are being abused. State to report to the appropriate person(s); record the facts on appropriate paperwork; listen and do not judge. Always establish what it is that has occurred and report any suspicions to the appropriate manager. Reassure the individual at all times and take every allegation seriously. Always date the paperwork and have it signed by any witnesses (if any). Take photographs of evidence if possible.
Speak clearly and precise and avoid any leading questions.
2.3-Identify ways to ensure that edidence of abuse is preserved. Note down every sign of abuse you can see.
3.1- Identify national policies and local systems that relate to safeguarding and protection from abuse. Safeguarding is everyone’s responsibility and all staff who, during the course of their employment have direct or indirect contact with children and families and vulnerable adults, or who have access to information about them, have a responsibility to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and vulnerable adults. There is a duty on organisations to make appropriate arrangements to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and vulnerable adults. Also government guidance makes it clear that it is a shared responsibility, and depends upon effective joint working between agencies and professionals that have different roles and expertise.
3.2-Explain the roles of different agencies in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse. work together to prevent and protect adults at risk from abuse empower and support people to make their own choices investigate actual or suspected abuse and neglect support adults and provide a service to adults at risk who are experiencing abuse,neglect and exploitation. 3.3-Identify reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuse. There was a “systemic failure to protect people” by the owners of a Bristol hospital at the centre of abuse allegations involving vulnerable adults, care watchdogs have said. The Care Quality Commission has published its findings following an inspection of services provided at Winterbourne View, owned by Castlebeck Care Ltd, in Bristol. The report comes after the BBC’s Panorama filmed patients being pinned down, slapped, doused in cold water and repeatedly taunted and teased despite warnings by whistleblower Terry Bryan.
Mr Bryan, a senior nurse, had alerted the care home’s management and the CQC on several occasions, but his concerns failed to be followed up. After considering a range of evidence, CQC inspectors found Castlebeck Care had failed to ensure that people living at Winterbourne View were adequately protected from risk, including the risks of unsafe practices by its own staff. It said: “There was a systemic failure to protect people or to investigate allegations of abuse. “The provider had failed in its legal duty to notify the Care Quality Commission of serious incidents including injuries to patients or occasions when they had gone missing.” It added that staff did not appear to understand the needs of the people in their care and said “some staff were too ready to use methods of restraint without considering alternatives”. The watchdog said the review began as soon as it found out Panorama had gathered evidence, including secret filming, to show the serious abuse of patients at the centre. Inspectors said they found people who had no background in care services had been working at the centre, references were not always checked and staff were not trained or supervised properly.
They added Castlebeck failed to meet essential standards, required by law, including:
•The managers did not ensure that major incidents were reported to the Care Quality Commission as required;
•Planning and delivery of care did not meet people’s individual needs;
•They did not have robust systems to assess and monitor the quality of services;
•They did not identify, and manage, risks relating to the health, welfare and safety of patients;
•They had not responded to or considered complaints and views of people about the service;
•Investigations into the conduct of staff were not robust and had not safeguarded people;
•They did not take reasonable steps to identify the possibility of abuse and prevent it before it occurred;
•They did not respond appropriately to allegations of abuse;
•They did not have arrangements in place to protect the people against unlawful or
•To persons who were not fit to work in care settings;
•They excessive use of restraint;
•They did not operate effective recruitment procedures or take appropriate steps in relation failed in their responsibilities to provide appropriate training and supervision to staff.
3.4-Identify sources of information and advice about own role in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse.
4.1-Explain how the likelihood of abuse may be reduced by
Working with person centred values… Abuse is reduced by person centred values because institutional abuse often stems from things being done to people because it’s convenient for the staff. The individual’s feelings and preferences are not considered. [ [ So, for example, a person requesting pain relief is left to wait because it isn’t time for the medication to be administered or reviewed. Active participation means truly involving that person in their care so that choice, dignity and respect are addressed fully. Promoting choice and rights is also addressed by active participation and an accessible complaints procedure (which should be visible somewhere in the setting or may be included in a service user’s ‘welcome’ pack) backs up that individual’s rights. It means that the person knows who they can go to with a complaint or concern about any aspect of their treatment or care. Hope this helps. ]
Encouraging active participation…Encouraging active participation builds self esteem, and the person will refuse to tolerate abuse and will be inclined to report it, they’re also around other people which will help to build friendships in which they can share things they may tell one of them if abuse may happen and one of them may pass it on to help. promoting choice and rights…
Empowerment is about taking cotrol of your life even if this is in a small way by deciding what you want for breakfast that morning .We all make our own decisions in our own homes so why not in a residential home .By including a resident in their care it allows them to still be an individual to have rights and wishes recognised even if they do not verbally contribute to be included is good practise.
4.2-Explain the importance of an accessible complaints procedure for reducing the likelihood of abuse. Complaints are good way of considering how well the services are provided, it also helps us to identify if there are any weaknesses e.g. potential for abuse and neglect. A complaints procedure should be simple to follow because it encourages people to raise their concerns and it indicates that organization will respond to those concerns rather than ignoring them. If it’s too difficult to make a complaint the abuse is likely to continue. If it’s easy to make a complaint the abuse is likely to be dealt with sooner. On a bigger scale complaints make government to bring changes in their policies according to people demand.
5.1-Describe unsafe practices that may affect the wellbeing of individuals. You could say that anything that puts another person at risk is an unsafe practice and therefore affects their well-being. [ Our behaviour can affect others, on a daily basis, not only in our work environment, but also in our homes and our social lives. For example, if we drive our cars too fast we could cause an accident, thus putting others at risk, if we let cases of abuse go unreported, not only could we be subjecting the victim too even more harm but we could be encouraging the abuser to victimise others, it is even believed that if we smoke in public or in the company of others we are affecting their health and thus their well-being. ]
5.2-Explain the actions to take if unsafe practices have been identified. All unsafe practices need to be reported to your immediate superviser so the person can be retrained or the condition remedied to prevent further damage.
5.3-Describe the action to take if suspected abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but nothing has been done in response. You must go to the next superior in position. After you have reported the incident you still have a duty of care to your patient. If you feel that your patient is still at risk then speak with your line manager regarding your concerns. [ If you feel your line manager is not taking appropriate action, or you suspect your line manager of abusing a patient then most company policies would state that you would need to contact the regional manger. You would also need to contact an inspectorate body. ] By Jowdii Leaa
Courtney from Study Moose
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