Sigmund Freud believed that the unconcious is the motivation for all simple desires. He believed that an organism is special because of it’s need to reproduce, and it’s need to survive. He thought that they are guided towards their needs by hunger, thirst, and avoidance of pain and sex.
Freud was born in Frieberg, Moravia. He lived there until the age of four, and afterwards, he and his family moved to Vienna. Later, he enrolled in the medical school in Vienna, and learned much about Biology, and Psychology. Freud learned much about psychology by watching the development of children and people. With his observations, he developed a theory of how people change, and the ways that people think. Freud’s goal was to understand a persons instincts and drives, and to see what motivated people to do certain things. His beliefs were based upon the ID, which were a person’s instincts or drives.
The ID works with the pleasure principle, which is the demand to take care of things immediately. He believed that the pleasure principle could be so strong that it could force a person to only think about one thing. Freud believed that the ID soon becomes the ego, which relates to an organism’s consciousness, and it’s search for it’s desires. This is a way of problem solving which is alernately known as the secondary process. The ego works on the reality principle, which is the motivation to take care of one’s needs when there is an opportunity. The ego competes with the ID, to keep the organism happy, and occasionally, it achieves it’s goals in the world. They keep a record of the things to avoid, and strategies to fulfill desires, and soon becomes something known as the superego. There are two parts to the superego: the conscience, and the ego ideal. The conscience is a warning message of punishments and consequences. The ego ideal grows through rewards and positive role models for the child.
Some of the instincts that are involved with a human’s nature are called the life instinct, and the death instinct. These are the drives, which cause the desire for food, water and other necessary things for survival. Freud had also came up with something called the libido. The libido is the motivational energy for the life instincts. Throught Freud’s research, the term libido was generally associated with the sex drive. The death instinct was the drive that every person has the desire to die as well. Most people did not understand his theory of people wanting to die, but Freud explained that some people saw that death could end all of their hardship and suffering that they encountered in life, because sometimes, life can be troublesome and tiring. Freud believed that for some people, death promised the release from the struggle of life.
Freud’s theories were very complicated and are not accepted everywhere. It has caused huge debates and contraversy all over the world. Some saw his work as brilliant, while others saw his work as garbage. But psychiatric evaluation is still an experimental field, one in which no one is sure of the therapeutic effectiveness.