I am equally grateful to my lecturer, Madam Wan Ziraiza Binti Raja Wan Ismail because she gave me moral support and guided me regarding the topic in this assignment. She had been very kind and patient while suggesting me the outlines of this short coursework in class and correcting my uncertainties. I would like to thank her from bottom of my heart for her overall supports.
Encourage is all important for me. I find myself being deeply indebted and grateful to those who always stand beside and supporting me; my parents and friends. I would like to show my appreciation to all of my fellow friends who are willing to spend their time discussing together about this English assignment in the progression of finishing this assignment. Thanks to them for their useful information and guidance in order to help out to make my assignment better from time to time.
I am very thankful to everyone who had supported me, for I have completed this short coursework effectively and moreover on time. By doing this assignment, I can call in mind and increased my knowledge on English especially on grammar part. I sincerely hope that this assignment can encourage me and my friends to become possess in English grammar from now on.
In this short coursework, three main things must be included which is parts of speech, types of sentences and tenses. According to Edward Sapir in his book Language: an Introduction to the Study of Speech (1921), “a part of speech outside of the limitations of syntactic form is but a will o’ the wisp. For this reason, no logical scheme of the parts of speech-their number, nature, and necessary confines-is of the slightest interest to the linguist”. Part of speech can be defined as a classification of words according to how they are used in a sentence and the types of ideas they convey. The chief parts of speech in English are nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections.
There are three major types of sentences. They are simple sentence, compound sentence and complex sentence. Simple sentence also called an independent clause contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought. Compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The example of coordinators are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. Complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which.
John Seely said in his book Grammar for Teachers ( 2007), “Some grammarians define a tense as an inflection of the verb-a change of meaning you achieve by altering the form of the verb”. In other words, tense refers to the form a verb takes depending on the time at which an action occurred. Tenses may also indicate whether an action, activity or state is, was, or will be complete, or whether it is, was, or will be in progress over a period of time.
The English grammar should be learned by everyone because it supplies essential information about the grammatical forms and structures of all the major and minor word classes that is important in daily conversations.
2.2 TYPES OF SENTENCES
1) Developing countries contribute nearly half of the total GHG emissions.
2) Climate change is steadily depressing crop yields.
1) Numerous policy and scientific reports indicate that if better technologies and management practices are evolved and put into use, the agricultural sector can offer a huge potential to reduce GHG load in a cost-effective manner.
2) It is estimated that an additional annual investment of USD 1.5 billion in agriculture and rural development will be needed to offset such an impact in South Asia.
1) Sustainability has been given due consideration because in Asian countries intensive land use is accompanied by problems such as unplanned exploitation of nature soil and water resources.
2) It is estimated that an additional annual investment of USD 1.5 billion in agriculture and rural development will be needed to offset such an impact in South Asia and USD 7 billion on a global scale.
Thanks to Allah S.W.T. for His Grateful finally I could finished my short coursework completely. In this short coursework, I have to select a text on environment. 10 sentences must be selected from the text and analyze the sentences according to the five parts of speech. Next task is to give two examples of simple, compound and complex sentences each from the text. Lastly, the task needs me to construct 12 sentences from selected three verbs according to the sub tenses.
I have gained a lot of benefits by doing this assignment. First, when I have found the article, I read it critically and understanding the type of sentences. This has improving my reading skill. Secondly, I practice to use correct and appropriate language structure in different types of writing. I admit that I was weak in the grammar part. With this assignment, I could recall what I have learned in previous lesson at class before this and strengthen my English especially in grammar. Moreover, this assignment gives me opportunity to learn English grammar more as I know grammar scope is wide.
The problem that I face in completing this short coursework is I have to select the most suitable text related to environment. The difficulty appeared when the text contains long sentences and it brings difficulty to me to analyze the sentences. To overcome this problem, I have discussed with my friend about the best text to be selected. My friends and I help each other as the saying goes “sharing is caring”. Even Sir Winston Churchill said that “If you have knowledge, let others light their candles with it”.
Finally, I would like to emphasis here that this coursework has build my repertoire of understanding the grammar in English. Hopefully the knowledge that I gained would be useful for me and my friends. Thank you.
Grammar is one of the structures of language. It is very important to have a good basic grammar, as it is most important one being effective communication. Grammatical errors in both speaking and writing can distract from the message itself and cause negative feelings to the listener or reader. Avoiding grammatical errors can help students avoid low grades, low self-esteem and embarrassment.
The key to good grammar is getting know first when to use which style and being able to defend own reasoning. Bookstores, libraries, and the internet are full of information on proper use of grammar. In order to improve grammar mastery, take some time to read the books, listen to the english tapes, visit english web sites, and work on grammar skills. Conversation in english with friends may help to make english mastery better.
Thus, I can conclude that grammar is subjective and quite doubtful however; bad grammar should always be avoided.
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Mark Cholij and Geetha Nagaraj, (2004), English Basic a companion to grammar and writing, C.O.S. Printers Pte Ltd
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Betty Schrampfer Azar, (1992), Fundamentals of English Grammar Second Edition Pearson Education Company
J.S. Hooper, (2007), A Quick English Reference, published by Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd.
Eddiplex, (2008), Advanced English Grammar, Eddiplex Sdn. Bhd. Lynne Hand, The Learn English Online Network, http://www.learnenglish.de/vocabulary/tenses/growtense.htm#top, access on 23 February 2011 Erlyn Baack, http://www.eslbee.com/sentences.htm, access on 23 February 2011 Demand Media (2010), http://www.essortment.com/parts-speech-34216.html, access on 23 February 2011 Englishclub.com, http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verb-tenses.htm, access on 24 February 2011