Introduction: Shared reading is an important instructional strategy in which the teacher explicitly engages students in the reading process. The shared reading offers an approach where teachers can use authentic literacy text to enable children to develop tactic and become confident and independent readers. The pioneer of this strategy was New Zealander Don Holdway (1979). Holdway (1979) explains shared reading as “the unison situation properly controlled in a lively and meaningful spirit, [which] allows for massive individual practice by every pupil in the teaching context” (p. 129).
Furthermore, the influence of literature is another considerable factor that encourages children to develop a sense of story and how narrative and expository texts are structured. As children become firm readers, the teacher supports them to use their prior and current knowledge for thorough meanings and taking learning risks (Button & Johnson, 1997). Benefits to children’s literacy learning: There is range of evidence based benefits of the shared reading strategy which are listed below: * Intensive, vivid, motivating literature is used, even in the earliest phases of a reading program, which allow them, to value literature.
* The teacher gets a chance to demonstrate reading for the children depending upon the reading selection. * Children become aware of the purposes of print, get acquainted with patterns of the language, and acquire word-recognition skills as learner interact couple of time with the similar selection (Shared Reading: An Effective Instructional Model, 1997). Another evidence of shared reading provides students an opportunity to: * Comprehend pictures that can help create meanings. * Apprehend sequential story events like what happened in the beginning, middle and end of the story.
* Recognize symbols and sounds in the word context of the story (“Shared Reading – A Critical Component of Balanced Literacy Instruction,” 2012). There is a list of skills that students acquire through rereading, for example recollecting information, sight words expansion and phonics. The last and the final evidence of shared reading enable students to: * Build and support children’s constructive attitudes and self-confidence towards reading. * Encourage students to read parts of it and then read book independently.
* Develop their reading fluency by starting with informal texts and expose response to text (prediction and conversation) (“Technical specifications (PC). (n. d. ). Overall, all three evidence of shared reading makes a unique contribution in developing balanced literacy learning because it begins from classroom literacy activities. What is more, shared reading demands that teachers know about effective early literacy procedures and the behaviour gives evidence of children’s emergent knowledge.
When used within a balanced literacy program, it serves as an influential means of supporting children as they continue to build a range of strategies for reading (Button & Johnson, 1997). Main steps of implementation and importance of each to children’s literacy learning: * Pre-Reading (before reading) In this stage, teacher activates and taps into student’s prior knowledge. Also, teacher sets the reading purpose for the learners and they are told they will be reading for pleasure and fun, to build their vocabulary.
Instructor allows students to observe the cover design and read the title of the book. In addition teacher poses questions to students to predict what the text might be about based on the cover image, the title, or sometimes even both. Sometimes if the cover is not very useful in giving students indications about what the story might be about, the instructor has to provide a brief synopsis of the book. The teacher might do a “picture walk” with book or chapter and say: “Look at the picture and read the title. What do you think the book is about?
” (“Pre-reading strategies,” 2012). * Reading In reading stage, the teacher reads the textbook and make sure that every student can see the text. The instructor use pointer to highlight vocabulary, repetitive patterns and reads text meaningfully with very few stops allowing children to make predictions. Moreover, on the following days the teacher re- reads the book in different ways to encourage them to participate in reading. Largely, the main focus is on the text understanding, comprehension strategies, print concepts, reading fluency, word recognition and developing vocabulary (Fellowes, 2013).
* Responding Students are stimulated to respond to the real story. In responding stage, students reply to what they have read through reading daybooks, journals and impressive discussions. Besides this, responding allocates what knowledge the child has acquired after reading the story. Knowledge might involve reading logs where the student transcribes about what they have read and link it to their real life situations or through discussions that can be entire or small group (“Technical specifications (PC),” n.d. ).
During this stage learning involves comprehending text, recalling information and unfolding the comprehension strategies (Fellowes, 2013). * Exploring The exploring stage is where the students review and analyze specific things in the text in order to acquire more vocabulary, to involve themselves in short lessons, observing the author’s skill that includes genre, text structure and literacy devices.
This can be done by means of using story boards that structure events, graphic organizers that highlight the plot, or by writing their own books based on the knowledge of the read text (“Technical specifications (PC),” n. d. ). q * Applying/ Writing During the applying stage the students are given a chance to develop a written text by using their experiences and activities. Varying on the text single strategy is applied e. g. it can be modeled or shared writing, Language Experience or Independent Writing. Students can practice the text through combination of arts like writing, drama, music, or projects (Fellowes, 2013).