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Settling the Northern Colonies Vocabulary Essay

1. John Calvin:

1. Protestant leader

2. Created dominant religion of American settlers

3. Wrote theories in Institutes of the Christian Religion

2. Anne Hutchinson:

1. Lived in Massachusetts Bay Colony

2. Promoted antinomianism

3. Banished and forced to walk and settle on Rhode Island

3. Roger Williams:

1. Wanted to break from the Church of England

2. Though Massachusetts Bay Colony was unfair to the Indians; banished

3. Built Baptist Church in Rhode Island; complete freedom of religion and shelter for Jews, Catholics, and Quakers

4. Henry Hudson:

1. English explorer

2. Filed a Dutch claim to what he thought was a shortcut through the continent

3. Employed by the Dutch East India Company

5. William Bradford:

1. Lived in Plymouth

2. Elected Governor

3. Feared the non-puritan settlers

6. Peter Stuyvesant:

1. Led a small Dutch military expedition

2. Called the Swedish Settlement that he took New Amsterdam

3. Forced to surrender without firing a single shot by an English squadron

7. Thomas Hooker:

1. Prominent Puritan colonial leader

2. Founded the Colony of Connecticut

3. Outstanding speaker and a leader of universal Christian suffrage

8. William Penn:

Founded the Colony of Pennsylvania

King Charles II handed over a piece of his American land to satisfy a debt

Improved relations between whites and Indians

9. John Winthrop:

First governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and served for 19 years

Successful attorney and manor lord in England

Eagerly accepted offer to become a governor because he believed he had a “calling” from God to lead the new religious experiment

10. King Philip (Metacom):

Massasoit’s son

Forged an intertribal unity

Mounted a series of coordinated assaults on English villages

11. John Cotton:

Massachusetts Bay minister who was prominent among the early clergy

Puritan who immigrated to Massachusetts to avoid persecution for his criticism of the Church of England

Devoted his education to defending the governments duty to enforce religious rules in the Bay Colony

12. Sir Edmond Andros

English military man

Generated much hostility because of his open affiliation with the Church of England

Taxed the people without consent and strove to enforce the Navigation Laws

13. William and Mary:

English rulers

Kicked James II out of England (exiled into France), and allowed more power to legislatures

Ended the Dominion of New  England, giving power back to the colonists

14. Massasoit:

Wampanoag chieftain

Signed a treaty with the Plymouth Pilgrims

Helped the Pilgrims celebrate their first Thanksgiving

15. Fernando Gorges:

Attempted to colonize Plymouth

Plymouth was absorbed by Massachusetts Bay after a purchase by the Gorges heirs

Was called the Father of English Colonization in North America

16. Myles Standish:

Soldier of fortune

Indispensible as an Indian fighter and negotiator

One of the nonbelongers

17. Martin Luther:

German Friar who ignited a fire of religious reform, the Protestant Reformation

Nailed his protests against Catholic doctrines to the door of Wittenberg’s cathedral in 1597

Denouncing the authority of priests and popes, he declared that the Bible alone was the source of God’s word

18. Squanto:

Taught English by a ship’s captain

Befriended the settlers

Facilitated Cultural Accommodation

19. Franchise:

An authorization granted by a government or company to an individual or group enabling them to carry out specified commercial activities

The right to vote

The territory over which such a license extends

20. Predestination:

The doctrine that God has foreordained all things, especially that God has elected certain souls to eternal salvation

The divine decree foreordaining all souls to either salvation or damnation

The act of God foreordaining all things gone before and to come

21. Freemen:

A person who is entitled to full political and civil rights

A person who is not a slave or serf

A person who enjoys political and civil liberties

22. “Visible saints”

People who appeared to be godly

Christian people who would go to heaven when they died

Strict Puritans in colonial days only allowed visible saints to worship with them. They were revered because they were open about their beliefs

23. Conversion:

Spiritual change from sinfulness to righteousness

change from one religion, political belief, viewpoint, etc., to another

The act or process of converting; state of being converted

24. Doctrine of a Calling:

A doctrine believed by John Winthrop instructing him to do God’s work

Sent from God

Many Puritans believed it also told them to do God’s work

25. Covenant:

An agreement

A formal written agreement between two or more people, businesses, countries, etc a usually formal, solemn, and binding

Agreement

26. Antinomianism:

The theological doctrine that by faith and God’s grace a Christian is freed from all laws one who holds that under the gospel dispensation of grace

The moral law is of no use or obligation because faith alone is necessary to salvation one who rejects

A socially established morality

27. Sumptuary Laws:

Laws intended to restrain or limit the expenditure of citizens in apparel, food, furniture, etc.

Laws which regulate the prices of commodities and the wages of labor

Laws which forbid or restrict the use of certain articles, as of luxurious apparel

28. Salutary Neglect:

An unofficial and long-lasting British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary

Laws meant to keep the American colonies obedient to England

A period of time in which Britain left the Colonies alone

29. Passive resistance:

Nonviolent opposition to authority, esp. a refusal to cooperate with legal requirements. resistance especially to a government or an occupying power characterized mainly by noncooperation

A way of opposing the government without using violence especially by refusing to obey laws

30. “city upon a hill”
religious utopia that would be acclaimed and imitated across the Old World initially invoked by English-born Puritan leader John Winthrop A City upon a Hill is a phrase from the parable of Salt and Light in Jesus’s Sermon on the Mount

31. Protestant Ethic:
The view that a person’s duty is to achieve success through hard work and thrift, such success being a sign that one is saved. an ethic that stresses the virtue of hard work, thrift, and self-discipline important factor in the economic success of Protestant groups in the early stages of European capitalism

32. Dutchification:
to make Dutch in quality or traits
the process of turning things Dutch
To render more Dutch

33. Protestant Reformation
Inspires many new religions as it made its way through Europe. Inspires Calvinism in Geneva, migrates to England and inspires Puritans. Started by Martin Luther after he posts his complaints about Catholics on a church door 34. Great Migration

70,000 refugees flee England in the 1630’s.
Groups of Puritans and many others leave for religious freedom. Charles I and Archbishop Laud calls Protestants swine rooted from God’s vineyard 35. Glorious Revolution
Dethrones unpopular Catholic James II, enthrones Protestant ruler of Netherlands William III and Mary II Dominion of New England collapses in the colonies; Andros tries to escape in woman’s clothing but is caught and sent to England. Puritans lose control of Massachusetts, English James II supporters hold American governing positions are corrupt and stopped the rise of local American leaders. 36. Pequot War

Between Pequot Tribe and colonists in the Connecticut River Valley. Colonists “slaughter” the tribe and establish four decades of uneasy peace between Native Americans and colonists. English critics call out the Puritans.

37. Dutch “golden age”
Dutch West and East Companies thrive.
Takes an aristocratic tinted government and controls majority of New York and Caribbean. Leads to invasion from English and Swedish.

38. Pilgrims
Make a “religious journey” like Old Testament with Moses.
Protestants from England and Amsterdam that separated from the Church of England that were called Separatists, wanted Calvinism Create Mayflower Compact as their self-government since they did not go to charted land so
were not controlled by the King, only members of church can vote (religious intolerance) 39. New England Confederation

Defense against Native Americans, Dutch, and French.
First time colonies and colonists work together.
Had to fight without British support in the English Civil War. 40. Calvinism
Starts in Geneva and makes it way to England during Protestant Reformation. Protestants like Calvinists ideas and want the Reformation to move at a faster pace so that Calvinist ideas can be put in place. Seek signs of conversion- receipt of God’s free gift of saving grace 41. Massachusetts Bay Colony

Settlers are educated and mainly Puritan, come from the Great Migration. Protestant work ethic- delayed gratification, if they work hard now they will be rewarded later Elected government but only male church members can vote.

42. Dominion of New England
Imposed from London in New England, New York, East and West Jersey, Sir Edmund Andros is in charge. Promoted efficiency in the administration of the English, places heavy restrictions on courts, press, and schools. Revokes all land titles and collects taxes without consent. Glorious Revolution ends the Dominion; Andros tries to escape in women’s clothes. 43. The “Elect”

Select that are predestine to go to heaven didn’t know if they were or weren’t sought signs of conversion Anne Hutchinson claims that they don’t have to follow laws or work. Calvinism religion

44. Puritans:

Formed during Protestant Reformation in England.

Adopt Calvinist views, share extreme views and interpretation of Bible.

Extreme Puritans become Separatists and come to New World and start new colonies.

45. General Court:

Puritan controlled court in Massachusetts

Early form of Puritan democracy

Elected by Freemen

46. Dutch West India Company:

Located in West Indies

Captures Spanish ship with $15 million worth of loot aboard.

Establishes New Netherlands off the Hudson for fur trading and buys Manhattan.

47. Seperatists:

Extreme Puritans who threaten to leave Church of England.

Get kicked out of England and sent to Amsterdam then migrate to New World, Set up Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay Colony.

48. Bible Commonwealth:

Name for Bay Colony, Quakers cause religious indifferences they are punished and hung Anne Hutchinson preaches antinomianism and is banished.

Roger Williams speaks out against Puritanism is banned but escapes and starts Baptism in Rhode Island

49. Quakers (Religious Society of Friends):

Escape from Massachusetts Bay Colony where they are being punished.

Start colonizing in Pennsylvania under William Penn’s rule

Welcome any type of people hand out flyers in England looking for people to come to Pennsylvania.

50. Mayflower:

Boat that brought over first Pilgrims, poor quality boat.

Mayflower Compact is written on it.

Sixty five day trip with 102 passengers.

51. French Huguenots:

Dissent from French Protestant adopts Calvinism, not allowed in New World.

Had little toleration in Europe, fled to colonies after Protestantism was outlawed in 1685.

Over 10,000 killed in Europe

52. Scottish Presbyterians:

Dissent of Scottish Protestants

No religious tolerance

Weren’t allowed to come to New World

53. Church of England:

Ruled by King until Pope is placed in charge but King controls the Pope

Those against the Church of England were hung, they fled to New World

Catholic Church.

54. Congregational Church:

No ties with England purely ran by Puritan colonists

Self- governing Puritan church with no connection to Anglican Church

Started in New England along with democratic government

55. Institutes of the Christian Religion:

Written by John Calvin in Latin in 1536

Introductory to the Protestant religion

Attacks certain Catholic beliefs

56. Navigation Laws:

Limits colonies from trading with other countries beside England

Increases smuggling and upsets many colonists

Salutary Neglect- weakly enforces the Navigation Laws

57. Mayflower Compact:

Drafted by Puritans coming to the New World that wanted self- government 40 something white males sign it (members of the church)

First real drafted form of government in the colonies

58. Fundamental Orders:

Established in New England

Sets up a regime democratically controlled by the citizens

Made to make New England the best and biggest colony

59. Plymouth Bay:

Set up by Separatists from Amsterdam, originally kicked out of England Democratic government but only male members of the church can vote

Less successful than Massachusetts Bay Colony

60. New Netherland:

Set up by Dutch West India Company in the West Indies after they get $15 million from Spanish ship they captured

Set up for fur trading on the Hudson River

Led to the purchase of Manhattan

61. New Amsterdam:

Run by Dutch company interested in stocks

Settles first Jews in its aristocratic tinted civilization

Gets in disputes and wars with English, Swedish, and Native Americans

62. New Sweden:

Swedish invade Dutch land and take it

Dutch rebel and regain land

New Sweden fades away along with Swedish rule in colonies

63. Penn’s Woodland:

Literal meaning for Pennsylvania name given by the King who wrote the charter for William Penn For Quakers or any other people wanting to go the colonies but not interested or accepted in what the other colonies were offering

Best advertised colony in Europe

64. Reconciliation:

Restoration of friendly relations

The action of making one view or belief compatible with another. Returning to faith or harmony after conflict


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