Selling technique is the body of methods used in the profession of sales, also often called personal selling. Techniques used in selling interviews vary from the highly customer centric consultative selling to the heavily pressured “hard close”. All techniques borrow a bit from experience and mix in a bit of guesswork on the psychology of what motivates others to buy something offered to them. Mastery in the techniques of selling can offer very high incomes, while failure in it is nearly proverbial. Coverage of the latter is popularized in works such as Death of a Salesman and Glengarry Glen Ross. Because selling faces a high level of rejection, it is often difficult for the practitioner to handle emotionally, and is usually cited as the most common reason for leaving the profession. Because of this many selling and sales training techniques involve a lot of motivational material.
Types of sales
A sale is the act of selling a product or service in return for money or other compensation. It is an act of completion of a commercial activity. The seller’ or salesperson – the provider of the goods or services – completes a sale in response to an acquisition or to an appropriation[disambiguation needed ] or to a request. There follows the passing of title (property or ownership) in the item, and the application and due settlement of a price, the obligation for which arises due to the seller’s requirement to pass ownership. Ideally, a seller agrees upon a price at which he willingly parts with ownership of or any claim upon the item. The purchaser, though a party to the sale, does not execute the sale, only the seller does that. To be precise the sale completes prior to the payment and gives rise to the obligation of payment. If the seller completes the first two above stages (consent and passing ownership) of the sale prior to settlement of the price, the sale remains valid and gives rise to an obligation to pay.
Consumer organizations are advocacy groups that seek to protect people from corporate abuse like unsafe products, predatory lending, false advertising, astroturfing and pollution. Consumer organizations may operate via protests, campaigning or lobbying. They may engage in single-issue advocacy (e.g., the British Campaign for Real Ale CAMRA, which campaigned against keg beer and for cask ale or they may set themselves up as more general consumer watchdogs, such as the Consumers’ Association in the UK. One common means of providing consumers useful information is the independent comparative survey or test of products or services, involving different manufacturers or companies. Another arena where consumer organizations have operated is food safety.
The needs for campaigning in this area are less easy to reconcile with their traditional methods, since the scientific, dietary or medical evidence is normally more complex than in other arenas, such as the electric safety of white goods. The current standards on mandatory labelling, in developed countries, have in part been shaped by past lobbying by consumer groups. The aim of consumer organizations may be to establish and to attempt to enforce consumer rights. Effective work has also been done, however, simply by using the threat of bad publicity to keep companies’ focus on the consumers’ point of view. Consumer organizations may attempt to serve consumer interests by relatively direct actions such as creating and/or disseminating market information, and prohibiting specific acts or practices, or by promoting competitive forces in the markets which directly or indirectly affect consumers such as transport, electricity, communications,
Methods of Retailing
There are several methods by which retailers can offer items for sale.
Community Shops and Convenient Stores
These locations tend to serve a particular community. Opening hours include all weekend days, holidays and very late in the evenings. Costs for some commodities that are not government controlled tend to be higher than other types of retail outlets. Community shops in particular cut and shape products to suit customers and offer credit.
These stores carry a several lines of goods under one roof. A department store may feature a clothing department, household items, stationery, hardware etc. It provides convenience to customers who can pick up several items in one place, and allows the businessman the cost effectiveness of
operating several business entities in one location.
Companies that retail through mail order benefit from reduced operational cost of location and staff. Since display areas are not required only an office and storage facility are necessary for the operation of this business. Orders are made from catalogues and goods are delivered by courier or mailed to customers. This saves time and effort of consumers to visit shopping locations.
Orders are made by customers over the internet from the websites of businesses. Payments are also made over the internet. Packages are delivered by mail or courier.
Tele –marketers introduce the company’s goods and try to obtain orders via the telephone.
These self-service machines are placed at various locations by their owners. Customers are required to place the required funds inside these machines and are then instructed on how to make their choice. The machine then dispenses the product. This type of business is very cost effective as owners may only pay a fee for locating the vending machine.
Forms of transport
Transport or transportation is the movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline, and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles, and operations. Transport is important since it enables trade between peoples, which in turn establishes civilizations. Transport infrastructure consists of the fixed installations necessary for transport, and may be roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals and pipelines, and terminals such as airports, railway stations, bus stations, warehouses, trucking terminals, refueling depots (including fueling docks and fuel stations), and seaports. Terminals may be used both for interchange of passengers and cargo and for maintenance. Vehicles traveling on these networks may include automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, trucks, people, helicopters, and aircraft.
Operations deal with the way the vehicles are operated, and the procedures set for this purpose including financing, legalities and policies. In the transport industry, operations and ownership of infrastructure can be either public or private, depending on the country and mode. Passenger transport may be public, where operators provide scheduled services, or private. Freight transport has become focused on containerization, although bulk transport is used for large volumes of durable items. Transport plays an important part in economic growth and globalization, but most types cause air pollution and use large amounts of land. While it is heavily subsidized by governments, good planning of transport is essential to make traffic flow, and restrain urban sprawl.
Importance of transport
Transport is one of the important aids to trade. It makes possible production and distribution of goods and services. It makes possible production because of transfer of raw materials and other requirements from the place of supply to the production. It makes possible distribution because it supplies the goods from the place of production to the place of consumption. Transport or transportation is the movement of people, goods, signals and information from one place to another.
The term is derived from the Latin ‘trans’ (“across”) and ‘portare’ (“to carry”).The field of transport has several aspects: loosely they can be divided into a triad of infrastructure, vehicles, and operations. Infrastructure includes the transport networks (roads, railways, airways, canals, pipelines, etc.) that are used, as well as the nodes or terminals (such as airports, railway stations, bus stations and seaports).The vehicles generally ride on the networks, such as automobiles, trains, airplanes. The operations deal with the control of the system, such as traffic signals and ramp meters, railroad switches, air traffic control, etc.