SECTION A: IMPERIALISM OR COLONIALISM
The “Scramble for Africa” was a movement by the every European power during the Industrial revolution to claim as much land as possible in resource rich Africa, with a goal of expanding its wealth and empire. During the Berlin Conference of 1884, the Europeans established that individual countries could lay claim to African land simply by setting up government offices in African territory (Tierney, 2013)
Belgium’s King Leopold II gained control of the Congo in the early 1880’s. Its abundance of copper, rubber and ivory were appealing to him. He initially pledged to promote free trade within the colony, suppress East African slave trade and promote scientific and philanthropic enterprises, but eventually reneged on his promises (Yale University, 2014). Leopold II ran the Congo like it was his own estate and treated the natives as his servants. If their productivity was insufficient, he would cut off their hands. While Leopold profited greatly, the people of Belgian Congo endured a great amount of suffering (Tierney, 2013).
SECTION A1: REACTION
As a result of the gross mistreatment of its people, African resistance occurred from the beginning. African chiefs organized uprisings, but they were often brutally squelched by the Force Publique, which was a campaign establish by Leopold to protect his economic interests and guard against frequent public uprisings. Rebellions often involved the Congolese leaving their villages, hiding, then ambushing army units and setting fire to the rubber vine forests. The effects of the unrest within the Congo had a huge impact on the Congolese population. It is estimated that from 1885-1908, its
native population decreased by about ten million people (Yale University, 2014)
GKE1 task 3
SECTION B: REVOLUTION CAUSES AND GOALS
The American Revolution began in 1775. Though many causes contributed to this war, the Boston Tea Party, The Intolerable Acts, and The First Continental Congress, are just a few. While no specific event is thought to have caused the Revolution, the war started over a disagreement about how the colonists were being treated by the British versus how they thought they should be treated (Kelly, 2014).
The Declaration of Independence outlined the goals of the American Revolution. The colonists wanted to be an independent nation and establish their own system of self governance, free from British rule. They wanted equal rights for all citizens, to gain independent membership in the European state system, and to gain freedom from tyranny (The Saylor Foundation, 2014). The Orange Revolution happened in the Ukraine in late 2004 to early 2005. This nonviolent revolution was an immediate aftermath of the 2004 election.
Exit polls during the country’s presidential election showed a 9 per cent margin of victory for opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko over Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovich, but when the results were announced, Yanukovich, a favorite of the Ukraine’s corrupt elite was declared the winner. These results were immediately challenged and the goal of unveiling election fraud and political corruption was soon accomplished (Karatnycky, 2005).
SECTION B1: STRATEGY DISCUSSION
Arguably one of the most important reasons for American success during the Revolutionary War was the support of the effort by ordinary citizens. Without the support and participation of several thousands of farmers, artisans and general laborers, the war efforts would have been unsuccessful. The Continental Army cut across religious geographical and social ranks. Nearly 800 slaves and indentured servants were emancipated by the royal governor of Virginia, Lord Dunmore, who also joined in the war efforts (The Revolutionary War, 2014). Other tactics that contributed to American success were the guerilla tactics that were learned during Indian wars. Militia men struck quickly and then quickly disappeared. They often wore ordinary clothing, which made it difficult for the British to distinguish between the loyalists and rebels (The Revolutionary War, 2014).
The Orange revolution utilized protests, acts of civil disobedience and resistance, as well as strike actions, which were organized by the opposition movement. The Ukrainian capital of Kiev where thousands of citizens demonstrated daily was the center of these protests. Eventually protesters got their way. The first election results were overturned and Yushchenko eventually gained power (Karatnycky, 2005).
Karatnycky, A. (2005, March/April). Ukraine’s Orange Revolution. Retrieved from foreignaffairs.com: http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/60620/adrian-karatnycky/ukraines-orange-revolution Kelly, M. (2014, December 17). Causes of the American Revolution: The Colonial Mindsetand Events That Led to Revolt. Retrieved from americanhistory.about.com:
http://americanhistory.about.com/od/revolutionarywar/a/amer_revolution.htm The Revolutionary War. (2014, December 25). Retrieved from digitalhistory.com: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtid=2&psid=3220 The Saylor Foundation. (2014, December 17). Goals of the Revolution. Retrieved from saylor.org: http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/HIST303-Goals-of-the-Revolution.pdf Tierney, J. (2013, December 11). European Imperialism in Africa. Retrieved December 2104, 25, from youtube.com: