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Scientific method Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Scientific Method

The scientific method is a form of discovery science. Discovery science is when observations and measurements can be verified with data. Applying the scientific method usually requires six steps. These steps are observation, question, hypothesis, prediction, conclusion, and results. Not all scientists use these steps in the same way. I own a 55 gallon aquarium with koi, “algae eaters,” and three breeds of tropical fish. Just today I used the scientific method to solve the problem of a dirty tank. Therefore, I will use this experience as an example of how I can, and often do, apply the scientific method. As I have many fish, the water becomes cloudy or begins to contain bits of debris. The first step in…

Philosophy- Locke Hume and Kafka

1. Explain how Locke and Hume view personal identity, or the “Self”. How do you see Kafka’s “Metamorphosis” as exemplifying these philosophical themes? You may choose Locke or Hume or both, or argue why you see neither of their theories as showing up in Kafka’s work. Locke’s theory of personal identity does not rely on substance to explain personal identity. Locke’s theory is person one at time two is the same person as person two at time one if and only if person one and person two are both persons and person one can remember at time two (his doing) what person two did or felt or what have you at time one. Hume’s theory of the self-held that the…

Scientific Method

The scientific method has four steps 1. Observation and description of a phenomenon. The observations are made visually or with the aid of scientific equipment. 2. Formulation of a hypothesis to explain the phenomenon in the form of a causal mechanism or a mathematical relation. 3. Test the hypothesis by analyzing the results of observations or by predicting and observing the existence of new phenomena that follow from the hypothesis. If experiments do not confirm the hypothesis, the hypothesis must be rejected or modified (Go back to Step 2). 4. Establish a theory based on repeated verification of the results. The subject of a scientific experiment has to be observable and reproducible. Observations may be made with the unaided eye,…

The Ultimate Truth

The Ultimate Truth Truth by definition as according to Merriam-Webster Dictionary is a judgment, proposition, or idea that is true or accepted as true. But how as individuals do we know if something is true? Our knowledge of what is true in my opinion comes from multiple aspects. For example, by using the mind we rationalize and logically think out situations we observe through our senses to understand how, why and if something is true. But we don’t only use one of our senses to know if something is true we use all of them. We use the ability to see, taste, smell, touch, hear and apply it to our daily lives to test ideas to see if they are…

Princiole Issues with Epistemology

Society has attempted to decipher what is real. The idea of what is real and what is understood has been a problem for societies. The different societies and cultures believed in other beings such as different God’s. Greek society was a leader in worshipping and believing in God’s that perceived to be real in their minds and culture. Worshipping these God’s begun to have other’s question if these God’s were real and gave birth to skepticism. The purpose of this paper is to examine the principal issues related to Epistemology. Philosophy has many branches but the one branch concerned with the theory of knowledge is Epistemology. Epistemology asks questions that relate to the scope, source, and nature of knowledge. The…

Epistemology and Skepticism

* Epistemology and Skepticism: How does The Matrix illustrate the challenge of skepticism about the external world? Explain, discuss, and critically evaluate the hallucination argument for complete epistemological skepticism. Be sure your essay includes a discussion of either Hospers’ or Crumley II’s criticism of complete epistemological skepticism. Is complete epistemological skepticism a logically coherent theory? Support your answer with a well-reasoned argument free of any major errors of fact, fallacy or logical contradiction. I. Introduction * The matrix questions the nature of reality. * How can we know for certain that the world is how we perceive it and not just a veil over our eyes? * Explain movie- trapped in virtual world believing they are in 21st century *…

Philosophy- Locke Hume and Kafka

1. Explain how Locke and Hume view personal identity, or the “Self”. How do you see Kafka’s “Metamorphosis” as exemplifying these philosophical themes? You may choose Locke or Hume or both, or argue why you see neither of their theories as showing up in Kafka’s work. Locke’s theory of personal identity does not rely on substance to explain personal identity. Locke’s theory is person one at time two is the same person as person two at time one if and only if person one and person two are both persons and person one can remember at time two (his doing) what person two did or felt or what have you at time one. Hume’s theory of the self-held that the…

Guidelines for Writing the Three Major Parts of the Literature Review

The introductory section should describe the topic (problem area, guiding concept, theme or research question or problem) that is being reviewed. Aim for an “eye catching opening sentence”. Sometimes this is a dramatic expression of a number to catch the reader’s attention such as the prevalence of a disease, crime rate, school drop out rate, or sales volume. Be sure the topic is focused on the literature that will be reported. Briefly define the key concepts. Introduce these immediately. The topic should be sufficiently focused to permit an in-depth, substantial investigation, relevant to an area of advanced study/global leadership that guides a range of inquiry, results in an extensive search of scholarly literature, and generation of questions for further inquiry….

Human Enlightenment: a Comparison of Kant and Newman

The patient is a 70 years old man, admitted in Clinton Cardiology Center for repeated chest pain, fainting, hypotension, thoracic discomfort and cough, which appeared suddenly the same day. The clinical exam showed: cold, pale, sweated skin, dyspnea, tachycardia, a diastolic murmur in the third intercostal space near the sternum edge, a third degree systolic murmur above the lower sternum, and a blood pressure of 80/60 mmHg. The electrocardiogram showed signs of right ventricular overload. The patient was known with arterial hypertension form 2009, had an episode of atrial fibrillation and deep vein thrombosis of the right calf in 2005 and had a hip replacement in 2010. An echocardiographic exam in 2006 noted an ascending aorta aneurism. He had been treated…

Epistemological Contextualism

“Epistemology robs us of our knowledge” (David Lewis). This statement is a direct result of skeptical theory in the epistemological community. For decades, philosophers have struggled with the possibility that individuals cannot know anything about the external world based on their senses. Many skeptical scenarios have been proposed, from Descartes’ “not being able to rule out the possibility that he is dreaming”, to the “Brain in the Vat” scenario, the possibility that no one can know what it is they have previously claimed to know; each haunts the steps of philosophers on their journey for understanding. It seems that for as many instances of skeptical scenarios that have been proposed, counter theories have also risen. The argument against skepticism presented…

Rationalism vs Empiricism Using Descartes 2nd Meditation & Hume

Q3:What are the main differences between rationalism and empiricism as approaches to knowledge? Explain the advantages and disadvantages of each, using Descartes (Second Meditation) as the example of a rationalist, and Hume or Locke as the example of an empiricist. In your view which approach better explains the common-sense knowledge of the world that we take for granted? Common-sense knowledge is information we know and understand unproblematically. It could be that a spider has six legs, your two times tables or that in answering a multiple choice test, it is a good idea to bring a rubber and fill in your answers in pencil. It is information gained from ordinary life. Epistemology is a philosophical term in reference to the…

Rationalism vs Empiricism

Rationalism believes that some ideas or concept are independent of experience and that some truth is known by reason alone. Rationalist support the idea of priori knowledge which means knowledge that comes before experience and independent of experience Philosophers that support that are associated with rationalism are Descartes, Kant, and Leibniz. Empiricism believes that some ideas or concepts are independent of experience and that truth must be established by reference to experience alone. Empiricist support the idea of posteriori which means knowledge that comes after experience or dependent on experience. Locke, Humes, and Berkeley are philosophers that support the idea of Empiricism. Rationalism claims that all known is innate. It claims that we are born with knowledge and find answer…

Empiricism and Geographical thought

?Critically discuss the concepts of empiricism and empirical methods and their use in geography. Your assignment should highlight the differences between the two, as informed by lecture material and reading. You must support your argument by referring to the assigned readings available on Blackboard and a minimum of TWO additional readings from academic sources. An academic style of writing is expected, including a complete list of references. “Let us suppose the mind to be, as we say, a blank slate (tabula rasa) of while paper, void of all characters, without any ideas; how comes it to be furnished? Whence comes it by that vast store, which the busy and bound… to this I answer in one word, from experience: in…

Statistical Research in Psychology

Many students, including myself, are unaware how important statistics can be to the research process in Psychology. In this report, I will discuss the method used to perform researches as well as the forms of data used through statistic in Psychology. This will include the advantages and disadvantages of each form used. Introduction Many studying Psychology might be shocked that statistics is a requirement. It is vital to understand statistics and how it relates when performing research. Many methods have been developed when researching a subject, most commonly known and used is the scientific method. The scientific method is a four-step process to ensure accuracy in the representation of the conclusion. Many forms of data are incorporated to prove or…

Why Psychologist use the scientific method

The scientific method makes use of a wide range of approaches and is a perspective that is seen better as an overall rather than use of single specific method. The already adopted scientific method initially was founded on the positivism concept. This included the search for descriptive general laws, which natural phenomena could be predicted with. Scientists were able to control the phenomena occurrences once there was possibility of the predictions. Subsequently, the underlying theories and explanations were developed by the scientists. Despite the change that has occurred on the positivist approach, the redefinition of the philosophical science is underway. The basement premises on which it was founded still continue to be on the current research mainstream. One of the…

What is Philosophy

According to the famous Greek philosopher Socrates, “The unexamined life is not worth living”. But what does he mean by this? He means that we should look and think through life deeper. Examination of life is more than just a use of common sense. Hard thinking is necessary even though it disturbs. With the use of Philosophy, we better understand things and answer the most important questions in existence. Philosophy, according to the famous Greek philosopher Aristotle, begins with wonder at the marvels and mysteries of the world. In other words, we started to question things around us because of our curiosity and our need to attain knowledge about things. Philosophy is the love of wisdom (etymologically from the Greek word…

Method of Inquiry

The method of inquiry is based on gathering observable, factual and measureable evidence. Basically, methods of inquiry are ways that an investigator gathers the information for the case that they are investigating. Methods of inquiry are used in criminal investigation by collecting evidence, statement collection, and going through electronic databases and even the internet. The methods of inquiry are all used in conjunction to reconstruct the crime scene. The methods are also used by utilizing the five W’s, who, what, when, where, and why, and also how. There are three methods of inquiry that are used in an investigation and those are authority method, tenacity method, and intuition. An example of a method of inquiry is when an investigator is…

Criminal Investigation

1. What are methods of inquiry and how are they used in criminal investigation? Methods of inquiry are a set of principles used to gather and process information in the pursuit of providing answers. These principles are divided into two distinct categories reconstructing the past and discovering or creating new knowledge (Osterberg J./Ward R., 2010). Criminal investigation uses elements of both of these disciplines to gather and evaluate evidence into clues or leads necessary for determining if a crime has been committed (Osterberg J./Ward R., 2010). These steps are also necessary after the crime has been established in finding the person or persons responsible for committing the crime. 2. What is the optimal mindset of an investigator and how are…

The ideal teacher

What characteristics should a teacher possess? What Makes a Good Teacher? Video – Effective Teacher • An effective teacher can be seen in the following video: Introduction What does being a teacher mean? • Having a vocation for the teaching profession. • Being dedicated. • Being surrounded by a large number of diverse students, each with their own baggage and unique character. Knowledge 1st Characteristic of an effective teacher • Should be transmitted in a unique and fun manner. • One should move from the known to the unknown. • It is not how much one knows, but how much one can deliver. Knowledge – Observation 1 • At a particular Boys’ Area Secondary School, it was noticed that the…

The Scientific Method in the October Sky

The movie “October Sky” is often used as part of lectures and discussions in science classes primarily because it demonstrates the most fundamental process involved in the world of scientific inquiries – the scientific method. Contrary to popular misconceptions, the movie shows more than the struggle for a dream amidst social obstacles and family conflicts. Rather, it narrates the true story of Homer Hickam, Jr. the son of a coal miner who yielded a number of science fairs because of his rockets. Basically, his quest to create an efficient rocket and his monumental success demonstrate the legendary scientific method. (Henkel, 2000) To a great extent, it can be concluded that the movie uses the scientific method as a pattern for…

Aproaches to learning – Theories of learning styles and learning strategies

Kolb (1984), in introducing the idea of the experiential learning cycle and of learning styles, defines learning as the process whereby “knowledge is created through the transformation of expertise”. He suggests that ideas are not fixed but are formed and modified through current and past experiences. His learning cycle consists of four stages; completing each stage is important to improve learning in the next stage : Active Experimentation (The learner actively uses the theories formed and also tries them in new situations. The latter takes him back to the start of the cycle. ) – Concrete Experience (The learner is encouraged to become involved in new experiences. ) – Reflective Observation (The learner reflect on his experience from different perspective….

Scientific Method and Participant Observation

In the article, “Researching Dealers and Smugglers,” Patricia Adler discusses her and her husband’s experience using participant observation to collect data from drug dealers and the problems this qualitative method brought. A qualitative method focuses on collecting rich, non-statistical data. This method involves face-to-face interviews and actual participation with the group being researched. The Adlers use this method because it is almost impossible to gather accurate information on people who smuggle drugs. This is true because they are such private and deceitful people. The only way to get the real facts is if the smugglers trust the person. Unfortunately, participant observation brought problems such as the dealers and smugglers being under the influence or going through withdrawal during the interviews…

Scientific Method and Investigatory Project

Doing an investigatory project considers as a major achievement of any students in Science. Through scientific investigation, they learn how to apply the acquired knowledge, scientific concepts, theories, principles and laws of nature. They can use their higher-order process or thinking skills in conducting a research. Let us provide you a brief description of the parts of the Science Investigatory Project Report below. Title The Title should be clear and precise. It has an objective or purpose. It should not be written too long or too short. By just reading the title, you can determine what the investigative study is all about. Abstract The Abstract should be one or two paragraphs only. It includes your research problems, the method or…

Benjamin Franklin

Founding father Benjamin Franklin once said, “The way to see faith is to shut the eye of reason. ” Theists for thousands of years have shut their eyes to reason and blindly followed the word of those who would have them believe in false gods. Reason demonstrates, through outlets such as Occam’s Razor, the lack of a need for the existence of those gods and the shortcomings of theists in attempts to prove their faith. Such shortcomings most prominently come in the failure to provide empirical data for the existence of gods, in fact, experimentation and observation show otherwise. To accompany a lack of need and a lack of evidence, because faith causes one to turn a blind eye to…

Barton Case Study

After analyzing the case, the theories and concepts that relate are: 1. 1 Evidence-Based Management (EBM) theory uses the best available evidence for making managerial decisions. The basic problem that Karen Barton faces with Dave Palmer is that he focused only on the reports that contained mostly qualitative benefits from the programs and did not contain much quantitative benefits and accordingly made his decision of cutting the budget. Whereas Organizational Behavior (OB) states that a manager should use all the three approaches of intuition, faddism and systematic study together. It states the use of evidence to inform the intuition and experience. 1. 2 Dave palmer also faces Overconfidence and Availability Bias, as he believed too much in his ability to…

Steps in a case study method

All studies require that a research problem be identified and stated, and must be simple, concise, and in clear terms. Such problem will be the focus of a case study. IDENTIFY THE PROBLEM OF THE STUDY The General and specific objectives of the study must be categorically expressed. Such objectives will be the bases in conducting research activities. State the Objectives of the Study The research must identify his sources of data or information, how he is going to select his sources, what variables are to be included and excluded, and how these variables are to be selected or determined. Determine the Sources of Data The researcher should identify the procedures of data gathering, the tools used in data gathering so…

Problem solving

Introduction This case is about a sales supervisor, Debbie’s Ronson, having a group meeting with the sales department. The meeting was held to discuss two things, one last week’s performance, and two Debbie handed out a memo outlining a new format for scheduling their calls. At the end of the meeting Debbie discussed the meeting to one of her fellow supervisors, saying she gives them a chance to talk in the meetings but there is never a response. Debbie believes they are either shy or disinterested in her meetings. Statement of Problem. In this case Debbie, the sales supervisor, held a meeting for the four basic meeting purposes, give information, exchange information, find facts and solve problems (296-297) using the…

The Independent

The problem statement in this case is the crude downsizing in organizations during recession that have crushed the loyalty of millions. Question 2: Problems are defined as the indication of a specific business decision is that will be clarified by answering some research questions. Firstly, the main statement that can be found in the passage is downsizing in the organizations. The symptoms that can be found according through what I have read in the passage are due to recessions, the organizations going to embrace lower recruitment and training costs, higher productivity if customers. Next is the analysis of the situation. First thing first, it is analyze that the company are having difficulties in their financial. In the same time, the…

Qualitative research

Abstract This paper is the first of a series of three articles relating to a case study conducted at Fairfield University to assess aspects of the rapid introduction of Information Technology at the institution. This article deals with the nature of the problem faced by Fairfield University, the characteristics of the case methodology, and lays the foundation for the selection of this research technique for the current study. The paper begins with an Introduction section to familiarize the reader with the case organization. The following section on Case Methodology explores the history, and some of the applications of the technique. The section ends with specific research protocols for researchers. Introduction Fairfield University is a private liberal arts institution of about…

Personality Assessments

Psychologists use the method of personality assessments to test personalities. Testing personalities is much like testing intelligence and because it measures something that is intangible and invisible it can be quite the difficult task. There are different theories of personalities and different methods of assessing those personalities; however some methods of assessment are shared between theories. The four theories are psychodynamic, humanistic, trait and social learning and all have different roots. The methods of assessment are projective tests, personal interview, objective tests, and direct observations. The projective tests consist of simple ambiguous stimuli that can elicit an unlimited number of responses. The personal interview is used to obtain information from the person being interviewed and can be structured or unstructured….