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Science Investigatory Project Essay


We all know that teenagers today are very eligible especially in wearing dress. We are more confident if we are wearing comfortable clothes. So it is very important for us to have a a clean and neat dress. All over the world, it is not ordinary to have a problem with our clothes. Many of the housewives has a difficulties to remove the stains in the clothes of their husband especially those who are working construction helper, chef and etc. Iron in the water supply is a common problem and a very real nuisance in doing the home laundry. Successful removal of clothing stains depends largely on the nature of the stains, the type of fabric, and the colorfastness of the dye. – 2013 Dry cleaning& Laundry Institute

Stains do not just spoil a look. They can also ruin a reputation. Some people judge other people by appearances and stains – on clothes, furniture, accessories and personal belongings. Stains are hard to prevent – they just happen, mostly by accident. But it’s even harder to remove stains. Especially in Manila, there are many possible things that can cause stains in your clothes. In Manila there are many busy persons with their business. . Ballpoint pens, permanent markers and fountain pens are helpful tools but can be trouble makers. Their stains can be the toughest to remove once they have set. – 2013 Manila Standard Today

In Davao City, Bilimbi is observable everywhere. So we can use and apply it anytime to our clothes anytime we want. People in Davao City are very hard work. The primary method of stain formation is surface stains, where the staining substance is spilled out onto the surface or material and is trapped in the fibers, pores, indentations, or other capillary structures on the surface.[1] The material that is trapped coats the underlying material, and the stain reflects back light according to its own color. Applying paint, spilled food, and wood stains are of this nature. -Wikipedia


These are many products out there that are proven to remove stains to our clothes using bleaching agents, but these products are very dependent to the times you need it. Not like an extract of Bilimbi you/we can use it anytime
because it is affordable but it helps us a lot. An extract of Bilimbi fruit is basically an affordable product that can remove stain in our clothes because of the high acid of its juice that makes a good agent for removing stains from metal blades.

We conduct this kind of study to be able to have another background study about natural bleaching agent and to build natural product that is a solution for a stains. This kind of project is very affordable as well as the materials are easily to found. We want to solve the problem of most people in removing stain. So, aside for this product is natural, health-friendly and affordable we also conduct this study because it is not harmful to use and to experiment.


In this study, these problems to be concluded and generalized

a) Is the Bilimbi effective as a stain remover?
b) Could it really remove fabric stain?
c) If it can, how long does it take to do so?
d) Is it harmful to us?
e) What’s in Bilimbi that makes it remove stains?


In a study there are always its ins and outs. There are four possible outcomes in the study:

1) Our homemade product cannot remove the stain in our clothes. 2) The extract of Bilimbi affects our skin
3) The extract of Bilimbi can damage our clothes
4) It is harmful to use


This study involves the use of materials that are locally available and cheap. All of us can benefit in this study since it is cost-friendly and all natural. People away from the city can also benefit in this study since most of the people around rural areas are farmers who plants Bilimbi. In fact, not only the farmers can benefit with it, also housewives who has difficulty to wash clothes that has rust stain. Another thing is, people can save money because the supplies used in the research are expensive and in contemptible.


We’ve encountered a few topics about the harmful affects of chemical-based bleaches and found out that these are quite number of people who get allergic reaction and minor during a prolonged use.

For about 3 days, our group was planning for our experiment. But in our experiment, it only took 5 minutes to do the experiment but we still observed the next 5 minutes that is why we came up with the duration of 10 minutes. . The data will be gathered and noted. However every study has its limitations, this study will not go deeper with further analysis of the reactions taking place and compositions of the substances that are being involved. The group will also not use any chemical substances or bleaching agents in experimenting.


The operational terms that had been used in our study, are the following:

Bilimbi fruit- Bilimbi is a fruit-bearing tree from the genus averrhoa plant family, a close relative of carambola. Bilimbi fruit are used in many medicinal purposes because of its high acidic properties. Eligible- able to be chosen for something : able to do or receive something Oxalic acid- is an organic compound with the formula H2C2O4. It is a colorless crystalline solid that dissolves in water to give colorless solutions. Endeavor- to seriously or continually try to do (something) Nuisance- is a common law tort. It means that which causes offence, annoyance, trouble or injury. A nuisance can be either public (also “common”) or private. Cappilary- re the smallest of a body’s blood vessels and are parts of its microcirculation. Contemptible- not worthy of respect or approval : deserving contempt Bleaching agent- refers to a number of chemicals which remove color, whiten or disinfect, often via oxidation.


It is proven fact that Bilimbi fruit is useful for cleaning and bleaching. According to http://www.fruitsinfo.com/bilimbi-tropical-fruit.php The Bilimbi fruit juice has a high concentration of oxalic acid which is useful for cleaning and bleaching. Bilimbi can be used as a syrup, spice or vegetable dishes, clean the stain clothes, polishing brass goods, and as an ingredient of traditional medicine.

According also to Wikipedia, In Malaysia, very acidic Bilimbi is is used to clean the Kris blade.[5] In the Philippines, it is often used in rural places as an alternative stain remover.[6] In Indonesia, its red flowers are sought as the ingredients of natural red dye for traditional textile. Both calamansi and kamias contain weak acids. Citric acid in calamansi and oxalic acid in kamias. Citric and oxalic acids have bleaching properties and are also specially useful in removal of metals including rust and some dyes.

There‘s also another study from http://www.healthandbeautypages.com/health-benefits-of-kamias/ wherein its juice is popular for making cooling and refreshing drinks similar to lemonade. It has high acid content of the juice makes it a good agent for
removing stains from the skin. The juice is useful for bleaching stains from white cloth, and also tarnishes from brass. In olden days it was used for cleaning the blade of a keris, the short, wavy dagger of the Malays .The juice serves as mordant (serves to fix color) in the preparation of an orange dye for silk fabrics.

Health Benefits:
The juice is effective as eye drops (regarded as a magic curative). Decoction of leaves or the juice of the leaves, are often consumed as a cure for venereal disease. A leaf decoction is taken to relieve rectal inflammation.

The fruit is given to children as a protection against coughs. A flower infusion is believed be effective against coughs and thrush. A leaf infusion is a remedy for Bilimbi has been used in traditional medicine for centuries. According to http://theindianvegan.blogspot.com/2012/10/all-about-bilimbi.html In folk medicine, the fruit is known for the following health benefits: As a drink, it cools fevers

The Japanese apply a paste to get rid of acne and rheumatism. As a syrup, the vitamin C combats bowel hemorrhages, stomach problems, and internalhemorrhoids. Javanese use the leaves to reduce rectal inflammation and fruit conserve for biliousness, coughs and beriberi Malays make a paste from the fruit to help new mothers heal from childbirth, apply it on the skin to reduce itching and even to alleviate syphilis. Its antibacterial and properties cause many in Asia to use the juice like a soap or cleansing agent.

Medical studies show several promising insights with bilimbi as well. Australian researchers discovered that the fruit keeps food borne diseases like salmonella at bay, when studied as a cleansing agent applied to shrimp Indian researchers found that the fruit, when tested on rats, may treat and prevent hyperlipidemia (or, high cholesterol) Researchers in Singapore discovered anti-diabetic activities of Bilimbi In a collaboration of researchers from Brazil and Trinidad, studies indicate Bilimbi might help control glycemic levels. The fruit also boosts muscle and liver glycogen levels.

coughs and is taken after childbirth as a tonic.
The leaves are applied as poultice on itches, swellings of mumps and rheumatism, and on skin problems. The fruit and leaves are applied on bites of poisonous insect..

According to Wikipedia A stain is a discoloration that can be clearly distinguished from the surface, material, or medium it is found upon. They are caused by the chemical or physical interaction of two dissimilar materials. Staining is used for biochemical research, metal staining, and art(e.g., wood staining, stained glass). A solvent or detergent is generally used to conduct stain removal and many of these are available over the counter. But in this product that we have conducted we can benefit more, because it is affordable and easy to use.

The purpose of bleaching agents is to bleach the natural substances in cotton fibres and cellulose fibres that make the fabric yellowish and to bleach spots that are not removed by the laundering process. Bleaching agents also bleach textile colours and hence should be avoided for coloured textiles. Bleaching also impacts on the fibre structure and in that way reduces the lifetimes of textiles. Hence textile service companies naturally will be very concerned to not over-use bleaching. No general remark on the health and environmental effects can be given since the nature of different bleaching substances used varies greatly.





The respondents of this study are Mrs. Emma Raniel and our parents who are knowledgeable enough to answer our questions posed in this problem. They
also help us to give more information about our study and to encourage us to do this project.


This study was conducted in Toril Davao City, Philippines. According to Wikipedia Toril Davao City belongs to the 3rd legislative district of Davao, it has 125,978 population as of 2012.


In performing this experiment, the researchers used three Bilimbi fruit and three clothes with different stains:

Gathered all the materials needed.

We cut the Bilimbi fruit into two pieces.
Then, we applied it to the clothes were the stains are located. Scrub it.
Then we waited for 5 minutes.
Finally, see the result. If the result is not as desired, scrub the cloth and wait for another 5 minutes, the you will see the result

This experiment did for about three times. The researchers gathered all these data by surfing the internet.


A. Interpretation


A. Summary

The study focused on making an alternative bleaching agent on how to remove a stain using a Bilimbi. We research about the features about the Bilimbi. Then we know that Bilimbi has a high acid that can remove a stain. So, we planned that this would be our problem. The solution’s composition provided a simple how-to ways help people to remove stains from their clothes. The material used were very affordable like a blender, bowl, strainer, sponge and a clothes. The product were wiped to the cloth that has stain. Data were collected to gather relevant information. From the experimentation, it was found out that the solution composing of extract of Bilimbi is effective remover to a stain. It only took 10 minutes before the stains were removed.


Arriving at our results and outputs, we came up that Bilimbi fruit (Averrhoa bilimbi) are effective stain remover. It only takes at least 10minutes before the effects will be observed.


From the investigation, the researchers would like to recommend this study to the students who would pursue the Bilimbi fruit as an alternative stain remover to use and apply it.

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