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# Science and materials in construction and the built in environment Essay

P1) Describe the basic factors in simple scientific terms that influences human comfort in the internal environment •Air temperature – Heat too hot too cold
•Lighting – Too dim not enough daylight
•Noise – Discomfort of hearing
•Air quality – Too stuffy, ventilation

P2) Describe how each factor is measured

•Air temperature – Celsius Acceptable level 33 C
•Lighting – Lux Acceptable level 100 (lx) Colour rendition (80 lx is considered acceptable for residential applications)\
•Noise – Db Acceptable level 65 Db
•Air quality – Humidity is measured in terms of relative and is expressed in a percentage of 100%, Acceptable level 50% (for comfort Relative Humidity 40 to 70 %)

P3) Describe acceptable values for each factor
Sketch on separate paper

M1) Produce clearly worked, accurate answers for three different calculations relating to human comfort in internal environment Answer on separate paper

D1) Analyse, in qualities, terms, the basic factors that affect human comfort Impact on design of buildings:
•Solar heat gain
•Heat loss
•Ventilation
•Too bright
•Glare
•Cleaning and maintenance
•Privacy
An older building can be upgraded if structurally viable to minimise the issues such as:
•Poor natural light
•Reliance on artificial light
•Poor ventilation
•Difficult to maintain heat
•Little or no sound design considerations
There are 4 physical factors that affect the thermal comfort
•Air temperature
•Air movement
•Humidity
HEAT (H) is a form of energy, the SI unit is Joule (J) Joule is used for measuring any other form of energy. Other units of energy still found in use include: calorie, where 1 cal = 4.187 J (measure of primary heat energy content of a fuel in joules per kg or m³) Kilowatt hour, where 1 kWh = 3.6 MJ

BTU – British Thermal Unit, where 1 BTU = 1.055 kJ
Air temperature
The temperature of the air surrounding an occupant of a room. The air temperature effects the rate at which the body losses heat Below 33 deg C the body will lose heat
Above 33 deg C the body will gain heat
Comfort will depend on the individual, the amount and type of clothing and their own Thermoregloratory System

Air Humidity
The amount of invisible water vapor in the air.
Humidity effects the rate at which the body losses heat.
For comfort Relative Humidity 40 to 70 %
Total Saturation 100%

Air speed
Ventilation will create air movement and will affect the air temperature, the radiant temperature and the relative humidity within a room. In winter can be perceived as a cold draught
In summer we can increase the air movement by the use of cooling fans

Day light factors
Inside buildings the light level depends on the daylight luminance outside which can vary from minute to minute. It is impossible to recommend a value of daylight luminance of a room and is therefore taken as a percentage of the luminance outside. This is known as the daylight factor and remains constant. In terms of human comfort it is considered that where insufficient light levels are provided in buildings this will result in lower efficiency of task activity and health safety and welfare issues. However lower light levels or mood lighting may also provide health benefits in promoting relaxation. Colour temperature also plays an important part in activity efficiency which will help to provide the right internal ambiance. ie neutral colours in school classrooms or Russian cockpit green

Free water vapour condensation on cold surfaces can lead to dampness and decay of building materials Insulation that becomes wet through condensation will be less effective Buildings must be designed to take into account the resistance to condensation in their construction.

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