The quality of education depends on school facilities and instructional material. It is the process of students learning. The quality of a school’s environment and its facilities has a strong influence on students’ learning. Besides regular use in organizing and managing a school’s activities, records of a school’s physical facilities and material resources such as furniture and equipment can provide data to derive many indicators for assessing the quality of education in a school. School facilities can actually have a substantive impact on learning process. School facilities can be defined as those things that enable the teacher to do his/her work very well and helping the learners to learn effectively. School facilities are all the things that are needed for effective teaching – learning process to take place. They are designed to enhance the process of teaching. The challenge for educators was to renovate or design buildings that provided the appropriate infrastructure for new learning approaches, mode of instruction, as well as tools for technology that improved teaching and learning. (Dewees, 1999) Lack of facilities has an adverse effect on the performance of students in the less endowed schools, Professor Kwesi Andam, former Vice Chancellor of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), has stated. He noted that students of less endowed schools could therefore not compete with other students in major public examinations, which determined admission to universities andother tertiary institutions. Prof Andam made these observations at the 35th Anniversary Speech and Prize-Giving Day of the T I Ahmadiyya Senior High School at Gomoa Potsin in the Central Region at the weekend.
The main reason for the low education rates in Africa is the lack of proper schooling facilities and unequal opportunity for education across countries. Many schools across Africa find it hard to employ teachers due to the low pay and lack of suitable people. This is particularly true for schools in remote areas. Most people who manage to receive education would prefer to move to big cities or even overseas where more opportunities and higher pay wait. Thus, there will be an overly large class sizes and high average number of students per teacher in a school. Moreover, the teachers are usually those unqualified with few teaching aids and poor textbook provision. Due to this, children attending schools in rural areas usually attain poorer results in standardized tests compared to their urban counterparts. This can be seen in the reports given by the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ).Those taking the tests in rural areas score much lower than those in small towns and big cities. This shows a lack of equal education opportunity given to children from different parts of the same country. In Manila lack of books, chairs, and water and toilet facilities once again greeted public school students of school year 2013-2014.
While the Department of Education said that the shortages are being addressed for this year, recent reports however belied this. DepEd Assistant Secretary for Planning Jesus Mateo said shortages in textbooks and classroom seats have been addressed since last year with an expected 1:1 student-textbook and student-seat ratio this year. The school facility is much more than a passive container of the educational process: it is, rather, an integral component of the conditions of learning. The layout and design of a facility contributes to the place experience of students, educators, and community members. Depending on the quality of its design and management, the facility can contribute to a sense of ownership, safety and security, personalization and control, privacy as well as sociality, and spaciousness or crowdedness. When planning, designing, or managing the school facility, these facets of place experience should, when possible, be taken into consideration. (Lawrence O. Picus) The San Francisco Unified School District, which has 113 schools and roughly 55,000 students, is still lacking nearly 3,500 textbooks. The dearth of instructional materials is affecting core topics such as math, English, history and science, according to a report given to the Board of Education.
In Davao del Norte, more particularly at the Bukidnon State University Sto. Tomas External Studies Center, school facilities are the problem of some students, Especially the Bachelor of Arts major in English students who don’t have a speech laboratory, and lack of books and EMC. The school doesn’t have any speech laboratory that is very essential for the English majors. It also lack of books, it has only a total of 4,700 books in the library. In the library it has only four computers that available for the students to use for research. They don’t have also projectors or Over Head Projector (OHP) in classrooms. The findings in this research study provided data on the relationship between school facility and learning environment and how growing school districts can effectively address or plan for students’ learning needs with the appropriate facilities. The quality of public school facilities was important to the discussion about school infrastructure. We were not just speaking about the buildings themselves, but what we need these buildings for—the knowledge creation and transfer of learning (Filardo, 2008).
Statement of the Problem
This study surveyed the relationship between the School Facilities and its effect towards the learning proficiency of Bachelor of Arts Third year students of Bukidnon State University-Sto. Tomas External Studies Center of Sto. Tomas Davao del Norte Region XI. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:
1. What is the level of School Facilities and its effect in AB3 of Bukidnon State University-STCES in terms of: Books and Materials
EMC (Educational Media Center)
2. What is the level of Students Achievement in terms of:
3. Is there a significant difference on the School Facilities and its effects when analyzed according to gender?
4. Is there a significant difference on the learning proficiency when analyzed according to gender?
5. Is there a significant relationship between the School Facilities and learning proficiency?
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of our study is to examine the impact of the quality of Lack of School facilities. The intent of this research study was to determine the relationship between school facilities and the learning proficiency. The researcher identified what aspects of school facility design that had the greatest potential to impact student learning. The findings of this research study had implications and design of school facility renovation or construction of new, schools buildings. The educational process was a very complex system. Improving school facilities, the effect on learning, and the educational environment, plays an integral role in educators improving the education of the students and providing good school facilities. (Filardo,2008)
Importance of the Study
The Importance of this is study is to determine the difference and relationship between the School facilities and the Students if they can affect their proper education into the Lack of facilities. The Beneficiary of this study are the following:
The students can benefit this study because they are the ones who need to be informed with the problems and the facilities of the school. The lack of school facilities can contribute to the learning development of the students. Teachers
The teachers needed to be informed by the concerning problems of the school particularly with the school facility problems. University
This study is addressed itself primarily to the University. School Facilities are very important aspect in the university. Therefore, The university should be informed in order for them to be enlighten with the existing problems in school.
Scope and Limitations of the Study
The Scope of this study is all about the School facilities in Bukidnon State University and conducted inside the campus and it is only limited in AB-3 Students.
GPA of the AB – 3 Students is another data resource for this study. It was gathered from the Bukidnon State University Center Registrar with the assistance of the Center Registrar.
Conceptual and Theoretical Framework
Independent Variables Dependent Variables
Figure1. Conceptual Paradigm Showing the Variables of the Study Theoretical Framework
This study is conceived based on the theory of Bert Vandiver. He said that problem was that school facilities were negatively impacting student learning and faculty, and administrators were not properly supporting stronger facility management.
According to Oni (1992), facilities constitute a strategic factor in organizational functioning. This is so because they determine to a very large extent the smooth functioning of any social organization or system including education. He further stated that their availability, adequacy and relevance influence efficiency and high productivity. As shown in Figure 1, the independent variable of the study is the level of School Facilities of Bukidnon State University (STESC) which are composed of the following indicators: (a) Library Books and Materials (b) Educational Media Center (EMC) (c) Speech Laboratory. The dependent variable is the level of academic achievement of the AB-3 students with an indicator of grades. The conceptual paradigm of the study shown in Figure 1, as can be seen in the figure, the independent variable is in the left box and an arrow from there is pointing to the dependent variable, the academic achievement of students, which contained in the right box. This means that the extent socioeconomic status has something to do with the academic achievement of the AB-3 students.
The following null hypotheses are tested at .0.5 significance level:
1. Is there no significant difference on the effectiveness of School Facilities and its effect when analyzed according to gender? 2. Is there no significant difference on the learning proficiency when analyzed according to gender? 3. Is there no significant relationship between the School Facilities and learning proficiency?
Definition of Terms
School Facilities – School facilities can be defined as those things that enable the teacher to do his/her work very well and helping the learners to learn effectively developmental stage. (http://www.mext.go.jp/english/schoolfacilities/index.htm)Retrieve 9/14/14 Learning Proficiency – Learning Proficiency refers to systems of instruction, assessment, grading, and academic reporting that are based on students demonstrating that they have learned the knowledge and skills they are expected to learn as they progress through their education. (http://edglossary.org/proficiency-based-learning/) Books – a book is a set of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of ink, paper, parchment, or other materials, usually fastened together to hinge at one side. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book) Educational Media Center – The Educational Media Center (EMC) provides visual and audio media such as videos and CDs for teachers to use in their instructional program. (http://www.huensd.k12.ca.us/page/130)Retrieve 9/14/14 Speech Lab – A speech laboratory is often found at universities. They are often used to research topics on speech. a special room or rooms with sound-recording and -reproducing equipment for use by students to practice speaking foreign languages, usually with an instructor monitoring the program.
Review of Related Literature and Review of Study
Textbooks and teaching/learning aids are essential for effective curriculum development. But these days a lot of teachers complain that students do not have even the recommended texts talk less of supplementary texts that could be used to reinforce classroom learning. Part of the problem with textbooks is that the prescribed texts are oftentimes not available in the market and so make it difficult for students to acquire them. At other times, the texts cost so much that most parents cannot afford them for their words. Another dimension to the problem is that most parents have been made to believe that Government has supplied textbooks to the schools and that the texts are there for their wards. It is difficult to convince this crop of parents otherwise. One can imagine what happens during a reading comprehension lesson in a class of about 50 students with only 5 of them owning the text. Assuming three children share a text. That means that the teacher concentrates on fifteen children out of the fifty. This author has witnessed such a scene during teaching practice supervision. What happens to the rest of the children who are in the majority without textbooks? Yet as Ekpo (1994) shows, the content of knowledge embodied in the curriculum is conveyed to the learners through communication channels such as textbooks and other devices.
According to Philippine Basic Education another problem with textbooks has to do with their readability index. The texts, apart from the Nationwide English pupils book one that is manageable, the Macmillan primary English course for primaries two to six is quite above their level. The paragraphs with long sentences are really cumbersome and intimidating to these pupils with their scanty experience in the language. In most schools where they have the supply, the teachers pack them one place. They will always tell you that the pupils cannot read them. Instructional materials are necessary for effective curriculum development. This is especially so in the case of English, where it’s teaching and learning are better facilitated with the use of materials. The use of materials helps to reduce the abstractness of the language to something meaningful and relevant to the pupil’s life.
As wiltch and Schuller (1973) show, creative teachers use a variety of inter-related resources to assure the quality of instruction. The use of picture, charts, realia, audio and other related materials improve learning opportunities for L2 learners of English. But sad to say that, most teachers never give thought to this. To them, it is the duty of government to provide materials and where they are not provided, no effort is made to improvise them. The last part of the above excerpt definitely shines light on teachers who are resourceful enough to overcome the lack of textbooks and other learning materials. The following photos from an elementary school in Paete, Laguna demonstrate how a teacher is able to make up for the missing resources. There is a reason why public school teachers in the Philippines need to have good handwriting skills as well as some sense of art. An excerpt of article at library journal Vol. 20, No. 6, January 1993.
Understandably, computer education has taken a back seat to these tragic circumstances. Yet, some computer education does exist in schools, although not uniformly or equitably. The high cost of equipment and the lack of space limit most Filipino public schools to computer education at the awareness level. However, a few bright spots exist such as at the Philippine Science High School in Manila, rated number one in the country, and an IBM-funded writing to Read project operating at one elementary school in Quezon City. One education official, Dr. Pacita I. Habana, described the level of computer education in the public elementary schools by saying that there is “really nothing going on.” However, she did say that, while generally there is no formal computer education program at the secondary level, a few schools have used their budgeted funds or other contributions to acquire computers. In higher education, the government-funded University of the Philippines’ computer science program flourishes, with its graduates in demand by Filipino employers. In contrast with public schools, computer education is more generally available at Filipino private schools. Elementary, secondary and post-secondary institutions, plus numerous commercial schools, offer courses of varying quality. One of the most highly regarded private institutions is the Jesuit-operated Ateneo de Manila University.
Under Ateneo’s auspices and located on its 100-hectare campus is a K-8 school with an enrollment of about 4,000 boys and a computer education program established in 1983. Computers are incorporated into Ateneo’s work-education curriculum along with courses in gardening and lantern making. Computer education is taught for one semester to all seventh-grade students. The program consists of an introduction to computing via keyboarding using Typing Tutor and a short unit on word processing using WordStar, but its primary focus is programming in LOGO. The school has two computer labs equipped with Zenith computers, but a shipment of 50 new Macintoshes were expected shortly as replacements. The head instructor, Helen Flores, stated that computer instruction currently occurs only in the labs, but school administrators were planning to move the Zenith computers into the classrooms. Flores anticipated problems integrating computers into the curriculum because of a lack of appropriate software and teacher resistance. (A failed “TV in every classroom” project had made many teachers leery of technology.) Flores spoke enthusiastically about computer programming developing students’ cognitive and problem-solving skills, but expressed doubts about the value of a computer-integrated curriculum.
Concluding our interview, Flores admitted to a sense of professional isolation because of the lack of Filipino organizations or periodicals specifically for computer-using educators. Educational facilities are considered indispensable to a school; they do not only provide housing for the school but also serve as facilitating agents for all the educational activities that take place in a school. The availability of safe, secured and satisfactory educational facilities (i.e., site, building, furniture, and equipment) is one of the prerequisites for the opening of a new school. Sites should be assessed in terms of its vulnerability to various geological and hydro meteorological hazards. Hazard-specific resilient features that have undergone thorough feasibility and viability studies must be incorporated in the design of the buildings or structures (Niño Relox, PAGASA). Conversely, one of the grounds for the closure of a school is substandard facilities (i.e., lack safe, sanitary, and adequate buildings and site). The availability of safe, secured, adequate and satisfactory educational facilities will support the teaching and learning processes and ultimately improve the quality of basic education. School facilities have been observed as a potent factor to quantitative education. The importance to teaching and learning of the provision of adequate instructional facilities for education cannot be over-emphazied. The dictum that “teaching is inseparable from learning but learning is not separable from teaching” is that teachers do the teaching to make the students learn, but students can learn without the teachers.
According to Akande (1985), learning can occur through one’s interaction with one’s environment. Environment here refers to facilities that are available to facilitate students learning outcome. It includes books, audio-visual, software and hardware of educational technology; so also, size of classroom, sitting position and arrangement, availability of tables, chairs, chalkboards, shelves on which instruments for practicals are arranged (Farrant, 1991 and Farombi, 1998). According to Oni (1992), facilities constitute a strategic factor in organizational functioning. This is so because they determine to a very large extent the smooth functioning of any social organization or system including education. He further stated that their availability, adequacy and relevance influence efficiency and high productivity. In his words, Farombi (1998) opined that the wealth of a nation or society could determine the quality of education in that land; emphasizing that a society that is wealthy will establish good schools with quality teachers, learning infrastructures that with such, students may learn with ease thus bringing about good academic achievement. Writing on the role of facilities in teaching, Balogun (1982) submitted that no effective science education programme can exist without equipment for teaching. This is because facilities enable the learner to develop problem-solving skills and scientific attitudes. In their contribution, Ajayi and Ogunyemi (1990) reiterated that when facilities are provided to meet relative needs of a school system, students will not only have access to the reference materials mentioned by the teacher, but individual students will also learn at their own paces.
The net effect of this is increased overall academic performance of the entire students. Farombi (1998) found that the classroom learning environment in some schools was poor. He cited examples of schools without chalkboard, absence of ceiling, some roofing sheets not in place, windows and doors removed among others, a situation which the researcher regarded as hazardous to healthy living of the learners. According to Nigerian Tribune on Thursday 25 November 1999, in caption; Mass Failure will Continue until…” the chairman of the National Committee of WAEC, Dr. U.B Ahmed opined that the classroom is the origin of failure… a close look at the public schools and what goes on there shows that nothing good can come out of most schools as they do not have facilities, adequate and appropriate human resources to prepare candidates for WASCE. The above statement indicates that the problem of candidates’ mass failure in WAEC’s organized examination will continue until the situation of the nation’s public schools change for the better. Writing on how to improve primary education in developing countries, World Bank publication (1990), citing Mwamwenda and Mwamwenda (1987) linked performance of students to the provision of adequate facilities while referring to a survey of 51 primary schools in Botswana that students performed significantly better on academic tests when they had adequate classrooms, desks and books. Earlier, Fagbamiye (1979) attesting to why students’ performance standard fall observed 559 cases from 13 secondary schools in Lagos State using age, type of school (Day or Boarding, mixed or single sex), teachers qualification and teaching experience as well as intake quality using students’ entrance examination achievement.
His findings revealed that schools which are equipped had good records of achievement and attracted more students. He concluded that good quality schools in terms of facilities and younger students’ intake perform better in WASCE. Commenting on why high academic attainment is not in vogue in Nigeria, Adesina (1981) identified poor and inadequate physical facilities, obsolete teaching techniques… overcrowded classrooms among others, as factors. Throwing more light on school facilities and moral guiding provision, Fabunmi (1997) asserted that school facilities when provided will aid teaching learning programme and consequently improve academic achievement of students while the models guiding their provision to schools could take any form as rational bureaucratic and or political model. Whichever model is adopted, according to him, there is always a common feature of differing allocation of facilities to schools. In his words, Ojoawo (1990), however, noted that certain schools are favored in the allocation of facilities at the expense of others. Writing on poor performance of students in public examinations, London (1993) stated that in many developing nations certain physical facilities are none existent, and that those instances where amenities are available many are of substandard quality. What is even more alarming is the correlation, which these observers claim to exist between quality of facilities and academic performance.
Lamenting on the glowing inadequacies of school facilities in our educational industry, Akinkugbe (1994) opined that everywhere you look, primary, secondary, special, technical, tertiary, there is abundant evidence of crippling inertia, criminal neglect and a pervasive decay in values and standard. Other scholars (Wilcockson 1994, Lawal 1995, Ajayi 1996, Suleiman 1996) have variously identified the significance of facilities in teaching learning spheres. We can say that absence or poor (and or deteriorating) quality of educational facilities can affect academic performance. Gamoran (1992), however, holding a contrary view noted that facilities… teachers’ salaries, books in the library and the presence of science laboratory, had little impact on variation in student achievement once student background variables had been taken into account. This statement connotes that before such student could perform well in higher educational level, he must have been groomed or cushioned by availability of resources in his elementary days upon which he now uses as spring board. According to Hallak (1990), facilities form one of the potent factors that contribute to academic achievement in the school system. They include the school buildings, classroom, accommodation, libraries, laboratories, furniture, recreational equipment, apparatus and other instructional materials. He went further to say that their availability, relevance and adequacy contribute to academic achievement.
He however, quickly added that unattractive school buildings and overcrowded classrooms among others contribute to poor academic attainment. Describing where these facilities should be located, he ascribed that educational facilities should be located in appropriate places, while the needs of the users should be put into consideration. In another development, Aliyu (1993) as cited by Johnson (1998) found that there was no significant difference between students in secondary schools with and without adequate instructional facilities. However, he submitted that instructional facilities were indispensible to academic achievement of students in English Language, Mathematics, Biology and Geography while students could perform well in other subjects without adequacy of sophisticated instructional materials. He concluded that the effect of instructional facilities on students’ academic achievement is more felt in pure and social sciences.
This chapter presents the research design, research subjects, research instrument, data gathering procedure and statistical of data. Locale of the Study
This study was conducted in Bukidnon State University Sto. Tomas External Studies Center, Sto. Tomas Davao del Norte. Santo Tomas is a first class municipality in the province of Davao del Norte, Philippines. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 109,269 people. Sto. Tomas is located on the island of Mindanao, and it is in the province’s second political district. It is bounded in the north by the Municipalities of Kapalong and Talaingod, in the east by the Municipality of Asuncion, in the west by Davao City, and in the south by the Municipality of Braulio E. Dujali. This map shows the location of Bukidnon State University-STESC Of Fd rd. #4 Sto,tomas Davao del Norte.
Figure2. Showing the map of the municipality of Sto. Tomas Davao del Norte
The respondents were 30 students, 16 males and 14 females. The researcher chose the random sampling which is drawing of samples of the study which gives each member of the population equal chance to be picked-up without a definite pattern being followed in the process of drawing the sample by means of lottery. (Maximiano Marquez Rivera Jr. 1999). Research Design and Instruments
The researcher prepared 1 set of questionnaire. The questionnaire was for the determination of the level of School Facilities of Bukidnon State University (STECS) which was composed of two (3) indicators such as: Books and Materials with five (5) items; Educational Media Center with five (5) items and Speech Laboratory with five(5) items being answered. The second instrument use by the researcher is the overall GPA of AB-3 students to determine their academic performance of the 2nd semester school year 2013-2014 which was requested to the Registrar’s Office. The draft was submitted to the thesis adviser for comments, recommendations and endorsement to the three experts for validation and was rated based on the following criteria: clarity of direction and items, presentation/organization of items, suitability of items, adequateness of items per category of indicator, attainment of purpose, objectivity and scale and evaluation rating system. The research questionnaire has the scale of 1 to 5 or the Likert’s Scale to measure the level of School Facilities in Bukidnon State University (STESC). The values on the scale has the following descriptive equivalent a.) 5- very high; b.) 4- High; c.) 3- Average ; d.) 4- Low; and e.) 5- Very low. The average mean of each item and the overall mean of the whole indicator would then be interpreted using the scale with parameter limit of the normal curve.