Abortion is the termination of human pregnancy. According to Greenberg, Bruess & Conklin there are two types of abortion, Spontaneous abortions, and induced abortion. The natural termination of a pregnancy is called spontaneous abortion or usually called miscarriages, and it occurs when the fetus stop developing and its expulse from the utero. Abortions requiring intervention to end the pregnancy are technically called Induce Abortion. Induce abortion has various methods including Vacuum aspiration, manual vacuum aspiration, medical abortion, or dilation and evacuation.
Vacuum aspiration is the most common abortion in the United States, and is a “surgical procedure that uses a suction tube to evacuate the contents of the uterus, which can be used through the first weeks and the second trimester” (Greenberg, Bruess & Conklin, 2010). The manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is a variation of vacuum aspiration that can be used from the detection of pregnancy up to 12 weeks since the last menstrual period. (Greenberg, Bruess & Conklin, 2010).
The medical abortion is the used of drug to provoke the abortion. Dilation and evacuation occurs during the second trimester of pregnancy. This type of induces abortion “involves dilating the cervix, scraping the wall of the uterus and removing the endometrial lining with suction” (Greenberg, Bruess & Conklin, 2010). “Should Parental Involvement Be Required for Minors’ Abortions? ” by Hyman Rodman. In 1973, the U. S Supreme Court gave constitutional authorization to women’s’ right to abortion after Roe vs.
Wade case. “The basis for the Court’s decision was a woman’s right to privacy: “This right of privacy, whether it be founded in the Fourteenth Amendment’s concept of personal liberty and restrictions upon state action, as we feel it is, or, as the District Court determined, in the Ninth Amendment’s reservation of rights to the people, is broad enough to encompass a woman’s decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy” (Rodman, 1991). One of the major restriction were debate in the U. S. Supreme Court regarding the women right to an abortion was whether to required parental involvement for minors’ abortions.
There are many reason of why parental involvement should not be legally necessary. Since abortion right to women was pass in 1973, many attempts have been made to end the right to abortion, to make abortion illegal, eliminate Medicaid funds to pay for abortions, all attempts have failed because “district courts ruled them unsontitutional and as these decisions were upheld by the U. S. Supreme Court Roadman 1991) The debates of abortion still a controversial in two levels, state and national. At the state level legislatures are trying to enact or restrict abortions for reasons of sex selection, with the exception of saving the mother’s life, prohibiting abortions after certain stage of the fetus, the used of Medicaid or federal funds to pay abortion, but the most controversial questions has to do with underage’ abortions, and particularly with whether to pass laws for underage permission or parental consent to have an abortion.
The Court declared a minor’s right to an abortion, but it change from state to state. The states decision on parental consent or involvement in minors’ abortion is a difficult task for the state because of the state courts have to balance the constitutional right of parental and minor’s rights. The States may or not require the involvement or consent of one or both parents. If the minor does not want to have her parents’ involvement the minor can evade by going to the court. There are many reasons of why parent should and should not be involve in minors decision on having an abortion.
Rodman state that “There is a pro-life argument that parental involvement will help teens to make a better and more informed decision about an unwanted pregnancy, and that this will improve the health of teenagers” (rodman, 1991) There are three reasons of why parents should not be involve in minors decision on having an abortion that Rodman present in this article, the first one is voluntary involvement, there is evidence that good parent-child communication about sexual matters leads to more responsible sexual behavior by adolescents. But when communication is forced it is more likely to be hostile and non supportive.
The second reason is because “Bureaucratic Excess” when the minor avoid parental involvement with judicial bypass. “Judicial bypass involves establishing court procedures so that minors can exercise their right of privacy if they want to obtain an abortion without parental consent or notification” (Rodman, 1991). And the third reason is “uniqueness of that decision indeed a unique status applies to reproductive health decisions generally, because the courts have recognized that reproductive health decisions are unique in their urgency, importance, and sensitivity” (Rodman, 1991).
Rodman state that If legislators and policymakers would acknowledge that, they would abandon their efforts to require parental involvement in abortion decisions and devote much greater attention to providing support for basic programs in education and public welfare that would reduce poverty, increase opportunities, enhance parent-child communication, and eliminate many of the unintended pregnancies that create a demand for minors’ abortions “Parental Involvement Laws and their effect on Abortion-Minded ” by Robert Schwarzwalder.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the number of abortion has decreased since 1990 by 20% and it’s due to the parental involvement laws. Michael New’s 2008 Family Research Council study found that parental involvement laws within the various states have had a positive effect in reducing the amount of abortions in underage population. The Supreme Court allowed the states to create laws for minors to gain parental notification or consent to have abortions.
But the Supreme Court required that the states to have Parental Involvement laws must have a judicial. By 2008, 36 states had adopted Parental Involvement law with a positive results, the results are that the among of abortion in minors (between 1985-1999) have drop by almost 50 % in contract of the states that parental Involvement is not required, the rate of abortion in minors drop only by 13. 4%. Also, laws that require both parents’ involvement reduces the in-state abortion rate of minors by about 31%” (Schwarzwalder, 2008) This study support that the states that support and enact the parental involvement law or required parental consent has an effect in the number of abortion by minors. And the effect is a positive, the decline of abortion of minors. Both parents involvement reduce the minors’ abortion rate even more. Schwarzwalder’s finding suggests that state and federal legislation to “mandates parental involvement in abortions for minors causes an overall decline in the abortion rate among minors.
Both articles: “Should Parental Involvement Be Required for Minors’ Abortions? ” by Hyman Rodman and “Parental Involvement Laws and their effect on Abortion-Minded ” by Robert Schwarzwalder refer to the ROE vs WAVE case outcome in 1973, the women right to abortion. Rodman and Schwarzwalder explain in their article the bypass and it procedures, and both authors talk about the remarkable influence of parental involvement in minors during the decision of abortion. Rodman explained why parents should or should not be part of minors’ decision toward abortion.
Rodman and Schwarzwalder agree that when parents are involve in their children (minors) sexual health the outcomes positive, Rodman said that “parental involvement will help teens to make a better and more informed decision about an unwanted pregnancy, and that this will improve the health of teenagers” (Rodman, 1991) and Schwarzwalder the declined of abortion in minors. Rodman explains why parents should or should be part of minors’ rights in abortion, he does not take a side or either should parents be involved or not.
Rodman conclusion in his article is that the “legislators and policymakers should focus on provide support for basic programs in education and public welfare that would reduce poverty, increase opportunities, enhance parent-child communication, and eliminate many of the unintended pregnancies that create a demand for minors’ abortions” (Rodman, 1991) instead of deciding either parents involvement in abortion in underage. Schwarzwalder conclude his article by stated that parental consent reduce the number of minors’ abortion rate compare to the states that do not required parental consent or knowledge.
In contrast to Rodman, Schwarzwalder just give the outcome of parental involvement in minors abortion but he fail to give detail and the reason of why and how parental involvement help to the positive outcome on decreasing the number of abortion. Even thou the two articles were good source of information for my research, I find out that the best source of information was the peer review because peer review is the evaluation of work by other people in the same field in order to maintain or improve the quality of the work in the same field.
A primary difference between peer review and popular media is that the peer review has to be approving by recognized researcher in the field, read and evaluated before the article is submitted for publication. Peer review will be published (approved) send it backs to author to be revised or rejected if it does not meet the discipline’s standards of expertise. In peer review journal the author are in general Experts (scholar, professor etc. ), notes usually includes reference a notes or bibliographic. The language used in the article is written for exerts using technical language in the field.
The audience is scholars or researcher in the field, and the frequency is usually monthly or quarterly. While the popular media the author are usually journalist, nonprofessional or layperson. The article has few or NO notes at all; the writing is for nonprofessional or layperson, and frequency is weekly or monthly. But the most important difference is that the review, while peer review journal is review by peer scholar not employed by the journal, the popular media article is review by one or more editors employed by the magazine.