Question 6: Do you think the classification of economic activities into primary, secondary and tertiary is useful? Explain how. The classification of economic activities into primary, secondary and tertiary is useful on account of the information it provides on how and where the people of a country are employed. Also, this helps in ascertaining as to which sector of economic activity contributes more or less to the country’s GDP and per capita income. If the tertiary sector is developing much faster than the primary sector, then it implies that agriculture is depleting, and the government must take measures to rectify this. The knowledge that the agricultural profession is becoming unpopular or regressive can only come if we know which sector it belongs to. Hence, it is necessary to classify economic activities into these three basic sectors for smooth economic administration and development. Question 7:
For each of the sectors that we came across in this chapter why should one focus on employment and GDP? Could there be other issues which should be examined? Discuss. For each of the sectors that we came across in this chapter, one should focus on employment and GDP because these determine the size of a country’s economy. A focus on employment and GDP helps determine two important things—per capita income and productivity. Hence, in each of the three sectors, employment rate and status as well as its contribution to the GDP help us understand how that particular sector is functioning and what needs to be done to initiate further growth in it. Question 9:
How is the tertiary sector different from other sectors? Illustrate with a few examples. The tertiary sector is different from the other sectors because it does not manufacture or produce anything. For this reason, it is also known as the service sector. It aids the primary and secondary sectors in development. The tertiary sector involves services like transport, storage of goods, communications, banking and administrative work. Question 10:
What do you understand by disguised unemployment? Explain with an example each from the urban and rural areas. Disguised unemployment is a form of underemployment where one has a job but the work is divided. It is not apparent as compared to someone without a job who is clearly unemployed. In rural areas, this can be seen in the farming community where all members of a family might be working on a farm even though so many hands are not required. They do so because of lack of another job. In urban areas, disguised unemployment can be seen in the service sector where painters, plumbers, repair persons and those doing odd jobs have work but they may not find daily or regular employment. Question 11:
Distinguish between open unemployment and disguised unemployment. Open unemployment is when a person has no job in hand and does not earn anything at all. Disguised unemployment, on the other hand, is mostly found in the unorganised sector where either work is not consistently available or too many people are employed for some work that does not require so many hands. This is the essential difference between open unemployment and disguised unemployment. Question 12:
“Tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of Indian economy.” Do you agree? Give reasons in support of your answer. “Tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of the Indian economy”. This statement is not true. The tertiary sector has contributed vastly to the Indian economy, especially in the last two decades. In the last decade, the field of information technology has grown, and consequently, the GDP share of the tertiary sector has grown from around 40% in 1973 to more than 50% in 2003. Question 13:
Service sector in India employs two different kinds of people. Who are these? Service sector in India employs two different kinds of people. These are primary and ancillary workers. Primary workers include those who directly provide services while ancillary workers are composed of those who give services to the service providers. For example, consultants make available their services to consultancy firms etc. Question 14:
Workers are exploited in the unorganised sector. Do you agree with this view? Give reasons in support of your answer. Workers are exploited in the unorganised sector. I agree with this view. The unorganised sector does not offer any job security. Neither does it allow for scope of trade or workers’ unions. Workers can be easily exploited in this scenario. They cannot afford to rebel against an employer’s tyranny as the latter can fire them at any time. Question 15:
How are the activities in the economy classified on the basis of employment conditions? On the basis of employment conditions, activities in the economy are classified as organised and unorganised. The organised sector offers job security and employment benefits, while the unorganised sector is marked by low wages and lack of job security. In rural areas, the unorganised sector comprises landless agricultural labourers, sharecroppers and artisans. In urban areas, this group contains small-scale industry workers, construction workers, street vendors, rag-pickers, etc. Question 16:
Compare the employment conditions prevailing in the organised and unorganised sectors. The employment conditions prevailing in the organised and unorganised sectors are vastly different. The organised sector has companies registered with the government and hence, it offers job security, paid holidays, pensions, health and other benefits, fixed working hours and extra pay for overtime work. On the other hand, the unorganised sector is a host of opposites. There is no job security, no paid holidays or pensions on retirement, no benefits of provident fund or health insurance, unfixed working hours and no guarantee of safe work environment. Question 17:
Explain the objective of implementing the NREGA 2005. The objective of implementing the NREGA 2005 was to provide 100 days of guaranteed employment to those people in rural India who can work, and are in need of work. This Right to Work has been implemented in 200 districts. If the government is unable to provide this employment, then it has to give unemployment allowances to the people. Question 20:
Give a few examples of public sector activities and explain why the government has taken them up. A few examples of public sector activities are provision of water, electricity and some modes of transport. The government has taken these up because water and power are needed by everyone. If the work of providing electricity and water is left to private enterprises, the latter might exploit this opportunity and sell these at rates which the masses cannot afford. Hence, to ensure that basic amenities like water and power are available for all, the government supplies these at low and affordable rates.
Question 21: Explain how public sector contributes to the economic development of a nation. The public sector contributes to the economic development of a nation by not mere financial profits. The public sector plays a vital role in contributing to the Human Development Index via its functioning in health and education services. Also, by buying food grains at a “fair price” from farmers, providing electricity, water, postal services at low rates, the government ensures that the people have a good living. It utilises taxes and grants to pay for the same. Thus, it plays a vital role in adding to the economic development of a nation, based on its human development situation. Question 22:
The workers in the unorganised sector need protection on the following issues: wages, safety and health. Explain with examples. The workers in the unorganised sector need protection on the following issues: wages, safety and health. In the construction sector, labourers are employed on a daily basis. Hence, they have no job security. Here, wages too differ from time to time. Consequently, the government has set up a minimum wages act to protect such workers from economic exploitation. The same problem exists for miners working in private mining companies. Their safety is secondary to the company’s profits, and as a result, many miners suffer grievous injuries (and many a times, even die) due to inadequate safety gear and norms. Governments of most nations have now laid down strict rules for private enterprises to ensure workers’ safety. Most companies in the unorganised sector do not provide health insurance to their employees. Some of these might be involved in dangerous factory production that may harm a worker’s health in the long term. These workers need to be protected against the tyranny of the employer, and it is here that the government steps in.