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Satellite. Solar system Essay

A satellite is defined as any object that orbits any other object. Satellites can be celestial, such as a moon orbiting a planet in the solar system, or a planet in the solar system orbiting the sun. Satellites can also be man-made. Man-made satellites are typically launched into outer space from earth to collect data, photos and other information about Earth and all the many things that exist around it.

An animation depicting the orbits of GPS satellites in medium earth orbit.
A full size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2 In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavor. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon. The first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched by the Soviet Union in 1957. Since then, thousands of satellites have been launched into orbit around the Earth.

These originate from more than 50 countries and have used the satellite launching capabilities of ten nations. A few space probes have been placed into orbit around other bodies and become artificial satellites to the Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Satellites are used for a large number of purposes. Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and research satellites. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites.

Satellite orbits vary greatly, depending on the purpose of the satellite, and are classified in a number of ways. Well-known (overlapping) classes include low Earth orbit, polar orbit, and geostationary orbit. Satellites are usually semi-independent computer-controlled systems. Satellite subsystems attend many tasks, such as power generation, thermal control, telemetry, attitude control and orbit control. HISTORY OF ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES

Sputnik 1: The first artificial satellite
The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957, and initiating the Soviet Sputnik program, with Sergei Korolev as chief designer. This in turn triggered the Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States. Sputnik 1 helped to identify the density of high atmospheric layers through measurement of its orbital change and provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphere. The unanticipated announcement of Sputnik 1’s success precipitated the Sputnik crisis in the United States and ignited the so-called Space Race within the Cold War. Sputnik 2 was launched on November 3, 1957 and carried the first living passenger into orbit, a dog named Laika.


Communication satellites
•Communication satellites provide a worldwide linkup of radio, telephone, and television. •The first communication satellite was Echo 1, launched in 1960. •Relay 1 and telstar 1 were the first active communications satellites. •They were launched in 1962.

Navigation satellites
•Navigation satellites are mainly intended to help aircraft, ships and nuclear submarines. •These satellites provide constant signals by which aircraft and ships can determine their positions with great accuracy.

Weather satellites
•Weather satellites carry cameras and other instruments pointed toward Earth’s atmosphere. •They can provide advance warning of severe weather and are a great aid to weather forecasting.

Military satellites
• Many military satellites are similar to commercial ones, but they send encrypted data that only a special receiver can decipher. • Military surveillance satellites take pictures just as other earth-imaging satellites do, but cameras on military satellites usually have a higher resolution.

Scientific satellites
•Earth-orbiting satellites can provide data to map Earth, determine the size and shape of Earth, and study the dynamics of the oceans and the atmosphere. • Scientists also use satellites to observe the Sun, the Moon, other planets and their moons, comets, stars, and galaxies.


The trick when launching a satellite is to get it high enough to do its job without losing the capsule to outer space.  It’s a delicate balance of push and pull, accomplished by the inertia of the moving object and the Earth’s gravity.


The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (usually known by its abbreviation, GSLV) is an expendable launch system operated by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). It was developed to enable India to launch its INSAT-type satellites into geostationary orbit and to make India less dependent on foreign rockets.


Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle
FunctionMedium Lift Launch System


Country of origin India

Height49 metres (161 ft)
Diameter2.8 metres (9 ft 2 in)
Mass402,000 kilograms (890,000 lb)
Payload to
5,100 kilograms (11,000 lb)
Payload to
2,000 to 2,500 kilograms (4,400 to 5,500 lb)
Launch history
Launch sitesSatish Dhawan

Total launches6 (5 Mk.I, 1 Mk.II)
Successes2 (Mk.I)
Failures3 (2 Mk.I, 1 Mk.II)
Partial failures1 (Mk.I)
Maiden flightMk.I: 18 April 2001
Mk.II: 15 April 2010
Boosters (Stage 0)
No boostersFour
Engines1 L40H Vikas 2

Thrust680 kilonewtons (150,000 lbf)
Total thrust2,720 kilonewtons (610,000 lbf)
Specific impulse
262 sec
Burn time160 seconds

First Stage
Engines1 S139

Thrust4,700 kilonewtons (1,100,000 lbf)
Specific impulse
166 sec
Burn time100 seconds
FuelHTPB (solid)

Second Stage
Engines1 GS2 Vikas 4

Thrust720 kilonewtons (160,000 lbf)
Specific impulse
295 s (2.89 kN•s/kg)
Burn time150 seconds
Third Stage (GSLV Mk.I) – 12KRB

Engines1 KVD-1

Thrust69 kilonewtons (16,000 lbf)
Specific impulse
460 s (4.5 kN•s/kg)
Burn time720 seconds

Third Stage (GSLV Mk.II) – CUS12
Engines1 ICE
Thrust73.5 kilonewtons (16,500 lbf)
Specific impulse
460 s (4.5 kN•s/kg)
Burn time720 seconds


One of the strap-ons of GSLV-F04 being brought to the Vehicle Assembly Building The GSLV uses four L40 liquid strap-on boosters derived from the L37.5 second stage, which are loaded with 40 tons of hypergolic propellants (UDMH & N2O4). The propellants are stored in tandem in two independent tanks 2.1 m diameter. The engine is pump-fed and generates 680 kN (150,000 lbf) of thrust. First stage

S139 stage is 2.8 m in diameter and is made of M250 grade maraging steel and it has a nominal propellant loading of 139 t. Second stage
The second stage is powered by the Vikas engine. It has 2.8 m diameter and uses 37.5 metric tons of liquid propellants with UDMH as fuel and nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) as oxidizer, in two aluminium alloy compartments separated by a common bulk head. It delivers 720 kN (160,000 lbf) of thrust. Third stage

The third stage is propelled by a cryogenic rocket engine, 2.8 m in diameter
and uses liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) in two separate tanks of aluminium alloy interconnected by an inter-stage. Propellant loading is 12.5 t. The indigenous cryogenic engine was built in Tamil Nadu at the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre.


The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle commonly known by its abbreviation PSLV is an expendable launch system developed and operated by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). It was developed to allow India to launch its Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites into sun synchronous orbits. PSLV can also launch small size satellites into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). The PSLV has launched 41 satellites (19 Indian and 22 from other countries) into a variety of orbits till date. Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle

PSLV-C8 (CA Variant) carrying the AGILE x-ray and γ-ray astronomical satellite of the ASI lifting off from Sriharikota

FunctionMedium Lift Launch System


Country of origin India

Height44 metres (144 ft)
Diameter2.8 metres (9 ft 2 in)
Mass294,000 kilograms (650,000 lb)
Payload to
3,250 kilograms (7,200 lb)
Payload to
1,600 kilograms (3,500 lb)[1]

Payload to
1,060 kilograms (2,300 lb)[1]

Launch history
Launch sitesSriharikota

Total launches17
PSLV: 10
Failures1 (PSLV)
Partial failures1 (PSLV)
Maiden flightPSLV: 20 September 1993
PSLV-CA: 23 April 2007
PSLV-XL: 22 October 2008
Notable payloadsChandrayaan-1

Boosters (Stage 0)
№ boosters6
Engines1 solid

Thrust502.600 kN

Specific impulse
262 sec
Burn time44 seconds
FuelHTPB (solid)

First stage
Engines1 solid

Thrust4,860 kN

Specific impulse
269 sec
Burn time105 seconds
FuelHTPB (solid)

Second stage
Engines1 Vikas

Thrust725 kN
Specific impulse
293 sec
Burn time158 seconds

Third stage
Engines1 solid

Thrust328 kN
Specific impulse
294 sec
Burn time83 seconds

Fourth stage
Engines2 liquid

Thrust14 kN
Specific impulse
308 sec
Burn time425 seconds

PSLV is designed and developed at Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram and Kerala. The inertial systems are developed by ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU) at Thiruvananthapuram. The liquid propulsion stages for the second and fourth stages of PSLV as well as the reaction control systems are developed by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), also at Thiruvananthapuram. The solid propellant motors are processed by Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, which also carries out launch operations.

After some delays, the PSLV had its first launch on 20 September 1993. Although all main engines performed as expected, an altitude control problem was reported in the second and third stages. After this initial setback, ISRO met complete success with the third developmental launch in 1996. Further successful launches followed in 1997, 1999, and 2001. PSLV continues to be the work horse of Indian satellite launches, especially for LEO satellites and the Chandrayaan Projects. It has undergone several improvements with each subsequent version, especially those involving thrust, efficiency as well as weight.


An orbit is a regular, repeating path that an object in space takes around another one. An object in an orbit is called a satellite. A satellite can be natural, like the moon, or human -made. In our solar system, the Earth orbits the Sun, as do the other eight planets. They all travel on or near the orbital plane, an imaginary disk-shaped surface in space.  All of the orbits are circular or elliptical in their shape. In addition to the planets’ orbits.


The forward motion of the satellite is its momentum. If the “gravity” of the earth is not acting on the satellite, the satellite would continue in
one direction. The swinging of the satellite gives it its forward motion.  When these two forces are equal, the satellite remains in orbit, without falling into or flying away from the Earth.  A satellite’s forward motion is controlled by rockets. When the rockets are not fired, inertia keeps the satellite going in one direction.


Receiving uplinked radio signals from earth satellite transmission stations (antennas). Amplifying received radio signals
Sorting the input signals and directing the output signals through input/output signal multiplexers to the proper downlink antennas for retransmission to earth satellite receiving stations (antennas).


In communication.
For military purposes.
For weather broadcasting.
In terrestrial application.
Satellite Services.
•Satellite internet access
•Satellite phone
•Satellite radio
•Satellite television
•Satellite navigation


Lifetime of a satellite is limited.
Once damaged it is difficult to repair.
Economically costly.
A small damage in any part can destroy the whole satellite.


Now a day’s satellite is a basic communication media.
Any information can be transmitting from one point to another with the help of satellite. All people are using satellites directly or indirectly.
Without satellites the days cannot be imagined.

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