Note: Contents and arguments written in this sample research paper are incomplete. Introduction (Ideal number of words for Introduction is 500). One fascinating feature of understanding Asia is its interaction and relations with co-Asians and counterparts in the region. Cultural and historical influences on international decision-making often go unanalyzed because their causal impact is difficult to theorize and define yet they remain crucial for understanding of relations between states (Fox 2003:4). Historical conjunctures and experiences of states are termed core dimensions on how they managed and shaped better the social structural and system of man and its environment. Issues drawn are more on the territorial conflicts and ethnic differences within Asia and its relationship with neighboring states. This is a very common issue between first world and third world countries or developed states between developing states.
The South China Sea for instance, there are numerous Asian states involved, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, and Taiwan. Japan has its own rift also with China, South Korea and Taiwan over the Sendaku Island and India having contention with China on the Tibet and Himalayan Range or also known as Sino-Indian border dispute. It is not enough to compare political institutions economic strengths and weaknesses and military force levels: while these considerations are obviously important they do not themselves determine how states will relate to other states in crisis situations (Fox, 2003:4).
This territorial dispute of countries in Asia causes instability that sometimes affected other actors and relations among nations and states. Peace involves creating new structures and new relationships by presenting sense-far reaching recommendations; it tries to show how these new relationships might be crafted so as to extend the promise of an expanding global community (Schaffer, 2005:46). Structures that would fit and innovatively respond to the needs of the existing environment composed of class-mixed community and government. But what being termed here in this argument is the reality that these conflicts are undoubtedly been an edifying and emerging theme in political discourse as to how policy framework will be framed and crafted by these states.
Statement of the Problem
The problem addressed in this study has specifically focused on the political implications of the Kashmir conflict to Pakistan and India. 1. What are the effects of Kashmir conflict to socio-political conditions of India and Pakistan? 2. How fundamentalist social movements and religious ideologies influenced and played key role in the policy-making mechanisms of India and Pakistan in the context of Kashmir issue?
Review of Related Literature (In writing RLL, you need first to identify the specific topics that you wish to write and argue. It is mandatory to cite sources subscribed from different scholarly articles, journals, and books. Use footnote/endnote or in-text citation) British Colonial Policy in Indian Subcontinent- The Results of Partition After the collapse of the Moghul Empire, British rule in Indian subcontinent has not settled easily the condition of most Indians. It took quite some time for British to transform India from a chartered country to a British colonial establishment. It has drawn policies that propagated and influenced India and Pakistan based on British colonial practices which have similarities with the kind and form of colonial policies implemented in countries that were colonized by Britain as well.
The origin of Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan dates back to the partition of the British colonial empire after World War II. There are five large regions in the State of Jammu and Kashmir that were incorporated under a single administration in the mid-nineteenth century (James and Ozdanar 2005:453). During its rule, the British government employed division policy in the Indian Territory which resulted to classification between Hindu and Muslim communities where Muslim has the majority population. Many Kashmiri youths were persuaded that because all other methods of achieving freedom had failed, violence was their only recourse (Habibullah, 2008: 102) Those who were part of the movement against Indian governments overrule were minority Pakistani that pressing their identity and existence as part of Kashmir’s vibrant history and that they should be recognized on their independence if not Kashmir’s inclusion in the Pakistan’s territory and sovereignty.
The issue of Kashmir as to where its contextual legitimacy be included is a major impediment to the region where once recognized as home of one and unified states of Pakistan, India and Bangladesh. Because of its partition history, India feared its position as a “frontline state” next to Islamic Pakistan, and leaders pushed decision makers in the security world to see local Kashmiri grievances as harbingers of an Islamic thrust (Mahmood, 2012:43). Its particularities are embodied in very complex features of intrastate and interstate sub-issues. Other actors in the issue have been involved in series of roundtable discussion and discourse offering numerous courses of actions to ease the tension and disagreement.
The Role of United Nations in Resolving Kashmir Problem between India and Pakistan
United Nations has played an important role in maintaining peace in Kashmir from the time British ended it rule and gave independence to India and sovereignty to Pakistan. It has even voluntarily offered assistance to both countries in providing security and maintenance of order in the conflicted area. Likewise, United Nations successfully implemented rules that aim to lessen the violence and disturbances which are violently contested among movements demanding the separation and independence of Kashmir and fundamentalist Muslim and Hindus expressing their support to Indian government. UN through Security Council passed resolution for the establishment of United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) to oversee the investigation on the issue. Resolution 39 was adopted on January 17, 1948 calling for restraint on both sides.
Indian officials viewed Kashmir could only be solved by an unambiguous enforcement of United Nations policies that concentrate resolving the issue by peaceful means. The issue is contextually incontestable whether it is an international issue or domestic matter, the core concern is the urgency to lay down solutions to lessen violence, disturbance and threatens States of India and Pakistan
On the other hand, United States is also a key actor in the framing of policies that attempted to best solve the crisis in Kashmir. Just like United Nations, US volunteered for a conflict resolution assistance in the Kashmir problem which was verbally promised by its Former President John F. Kennedy during a campaign period that America would perform an important action in delivering appropriate mechanisms in easing the Kashmir conflict and bringing peace among Indians and Pakistanis. Despite differences between Washington and New Delhi on major political issues, the United States continued to give economic assistance to India.
The Role of Fundamentalist Social Movements in India and Pakistan The fundamentalist social movement experience in India
Analysis of the political environment that spawns fundamentalist movements cannot be limited to just the State. The institutions and organizations of “civil society” are often the most important political context. Any given fundamentalist movement must compete or (perhaps) cooperate with other social groups (Marty 2004:801). Hindu fundamentalism in India is characterized by distinct philosophical points of view. With its vast geographical reach within the entire Indian subcontinent, majority of Hindu fundamentalists are living in India while the rest are to be found in some parts of Bangladesh and Pakistan. The rise of fundamentalism in India threatens security condition across border and its experience with fundamentalism has been bloody and traumatic.
Mahatma Gandhi, before he could fully savor the fresh air of independent India, fell victim to a Hindu fundamentalist’s bullets. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was gunned down by her own Sikh bodyguard in the aftermath of the Sikh fundamentalist movement that swept through the vibrant state of Punjab in the early 1980s.And a female suicide bomber of the Tamil fundamentalist group from Sri Lanka blew up Indira’s son Rajiv Gandhi, who had succeeded her as Prime Minister (Kumar 2002:18).
She adds that the problem of fundamentalism knows no borders, and it is a common enemy of humanity. For many, “fundamentalism conjures up images of mobs shouting ‘death to America,’ embassies in flames, assassins and hijackers threatening innocent lives, hands chopped off, and women oppressed.” The inquisitive observer must ask not only “how effective have fundamentalist movements been in influencing their own adherents,” but also “how much impact have they exercised in the lives of non-fundamentalists?
Fundamentalist social movement experience in Pakistan
Fundamentalists in Pakistan viewed Kashmir in a different dimension and thoughts; Kashmir is an independent State, Pakistan has the rights over the State while the rest think Kashmir is part of India’s past. For Indian and Pakistani Muslim, loyalty to a group and his country is very important. This is a system of leadership that exists within Islamic fundamentalist extremist groups and has been utilized most notably by the al-Qaeda organization. Allegiance could better be referred to as a pledge which is based on the traditional and historic tribal allegiance system (Guidere 2012:27). Party loyalty requires commitments on how to perform based on the given organizational goals operating within India and Pakistan. They are influential in a way that they dictate believers on how to act in accordance with the principles and norms governing the system.
The division of early India to become two states was derived from the religious principles that Muslims should stay in Pakistan where majority of its people are Muslim and India based on the two nation theory suggests that Hindu deserved better to reside and occupy India as considered as holy state for Hindus. Throughout the country, Hindus outnumber other religious communities everywhere except in the State of Jammu and Kashmir and the Union Territory of Lakshadweep, which have Muslim majorities. It is the largest religious minority in Sri Lanka (17 percent) and Bangladesh (12 percent), which adds an additional 3 million and 13 million respectively (Juergensmeyer 2003: 53). Migration is seen as key component in the increasing number of Hindu population not only in India but other countries where they settled. They have crosses borders and some were displaced due to communal unrest in the subcontinent.
Lastly, Indian government challenging the foundations and feasibility of the “Two-Nation Theory” as proposed by Kashmiri local officials, the government of Pakistan and some civil society movements in India. This Two-Nation Theory applies to both states of India and Pakistan in governing the Kashmir territory, Northern part of Kashmir will be administered by Pakistani government while on the Eastern region of Kashmir where western territories of India is located will be administered by Indian government. This initiative tremendously opposed by many Indians. Their thoughts and expressions were based mostly on their political and economic ideologies. Economically, they have projected that Kashmir would be a big loss to the wealth of India.
Significance of the Study
This study would be an additional literature in understanding the dynamics characterizing conflict in Kashmir and its effects to the current political condition of India and Pakistan. This is a domestic issue contested based on differences of ideologies, philosophies and principles in religion and politics however, this as well termed as social phenomenon that seriously affects concerned states in South Asian region envisioning development and transformation from the ruins of colonialism. Furthermore, this essay is important as it would analyze the developments of policies, initiatives and government-led mechanisms and political lines of India and Pakistan in their struggle of delivering appropriate and just solutions to the Kashmir issue.
The wave of fundamentalist movements in India and Pakistan have played vital role in framing policies that is contextually relevant to the prevailing social norms and belief system of both countries. With diverse cultural orientations in both countries, fundamentalism is an issue beyond the parameter of religion and spiritual ideologies among Indians and Pakistanis, it is already a phenomenon and key element that concerned countries should embrace and recognize its being particularly its linkage to national policy-making and security. As pointed out by James and Ozdanar, India has strongly committed to the principles of secularism and fundamentalism strengthening Hindu nationalism in the wake of Kashmir turmoil and political turbulence has, in turn influenced nationalists to take a harder line in Kashmir and against Pakistan.
These people’s principles and philosophies are always regarded with utmost consideration that serves as a blueprint if not a guideline in executing mechanisms to address social ills and disputes in a culturally-rich environment. Shaffer (2005) always pointed out that awareness on the historical path of the conflict should be analyzed and studied carefully and it is worthy to be realistic but equally important not to be imprisoned by the past. Looking back to the history of the conflict is very significant however; there are other factors that should be considered such as addressing the current needs and condition of the crisis and attending the plight of marginalized Kashmiris.
Indeed, these variations of events within the geography of two South Asian countries and its respective governments have shown the dynamism of South Asia. India will always be a critical and central player in the pivot of geopolitics in Central region of the continent while Pakistan will continue its reforms for strong governance with the help of US and allies in the Arab region. Labeling them as prominent and classic instruments of ethnicity and displacement for the last hundred years will forever be part of the evolving biography and history of India and Pakistan.
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