Art Song – refers to a type of music that creates vivid rhythmic images in the minds of potential audiences. Art songs became popular during the Romantic Era, as some say, the equivalent of impressionism in music. Mahler Symphony No. 1 (Funeral March) Movement 3 is generally moderately fast, as there is an alteration of crescendo and decrescendo. Movement 3 begins with a slow pacing (mollo), then increases, depicting vivid images of a funeral march. Then rhythm increases, as typical with most funeral marches; consolidation of themes. The movement ends with a general summation of themes from the 1st and 2nd movements.
Nationalism and Romantic Music In the beginning of the 18th century, composers usually attached nationalist sentiments in their music. Frederic Chopin, the national composer of Poland, composed the famous Polonaise in A Flat Major, Opus 53 (or the Heroic Polonaise), as a tribute to his homeland. Other composers like Verdi, Liszt, Schubert, and Brahms composed music that depicted the history of nations and peoples (and their struggles throughout the century). Romanticism Romantic music is usually likened to impressionism in painting. A Romantic music is usually characterized by mingling of themes (A-B-A-D-A) and variations (A-B-C-D-A).
First theme and variation are either ‘proud’ or ‘sunk’ in nature (depending on the type of message that the composer wants to convey). One of the most acknowledged romantic composers of the 19th century is Frederic Chopin. Most of his compositions followed the A-B-C-D-A variation. In essence, his compositions were highly nationalistic in orientation; depicting the present and future state of affairs of his country, Poland. His compositions can be interpreted in many ways, as much as that of the paintings of Monet and other impressionist painters. Interaction of Composers, Writers, and Artists
Music prospered during the 18th century because of interaction among composers, writers, and artists. For example, the friendship between Chopin and Liszt contributed heavily to the development of romantic music. Franz Liszt had a considerable number of friends; many of whom were renowned artists. When Liszt introduced his friends to Chopin, the latter became intrigue of the possibility of art variation. Chopin wrote several compositions that described the emotional tone of his artist friends. Most of the time, they shared ideas on the proper structure of art, message, tone, and nationalism.
• Nocturne in F-sharp, Op. 15 No. 2 – Chopin wrote this composition after he lost his first love (a woman whom he was engaged for 7 years) • Carnaval – Robert Schumann wrote this composition for a day meal. Robert Schumann died in poverty. His music was deeply unappreciated during his lifetime • Romeo and Juliet-Overture Fantasy – Tchaikovsky wrote this composition to depict the nationalist sentiment of Russia against Napoleon. The composition reversed the original message of the English play to give it a more flexible nationalist meaning.