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Roman Empire Essay Topics & Paper Examples

The End of Western Roman Empire

The Roman Empire, perhaps the strongest, most evolved and most consistently fascinating empire has been the subject of historical research and discourse than any other empires that the history of the world has seen. Its birth and its rise was a complex process involving a multitude of factors that came together to create a super-power the world had never seen; its decline – more complex still. It is difficult for historians and researchers to pin down the exact chief reason of its decline and highlight the one major cause that led to the downfall of the giant. From foreign invasions to incompetent emperors, from internal strife to crippled economy – all have been cited time and time again as the…

Reflection of the Roman Empire

I consider the Roman Empire as one of the huge part of the history of mankind. The Romans contributed on many aspects, including the politics, policy, entertainment, architecture, sculpture, poetry, principles, sports, arts and painting, norms, culture and laws. Most of their contributions and legacies are being studied today. Their good leaders/emperors serve as the model for our public servants. The Romans excel on different fields. The most important thing that they had started is the Catholicism ( even though I’m not a catholic I appreciated it). The good leaders has striven for transformations and reforms. In 27 B.C., Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus was awarded the honorific title of Augustus by a decree of the Senate. So began the Roman…

Ancient Rome

During the Han Empire of China and the Roman Empire of the Mediterranean World were both had advanced technology for their time. Han China’s attitude toward manufacturing and labor was more positive than the Romans who had a more class divided society, therefore causing attitudes toward labor and technology to be looked down upon. The Hans respect technology and the people who use it. In China, 2nd century B. C. E. a government official stated that he wanted to organize their labor force with the use of technology so they could help to prevent a disaster from occurring when and if a flood takes place. This could help the people from getting hurt and their property from getting destroyed (Doc….

Rome vs. Han China

Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that began growing on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century B. C. E. It became one of the largest empires in the world, contributing greatly to government, politics, art, literature, architecture, warfare techniques, and social structures in the western world. The Han Dynasty was an age of great economic, technological, cultural, and social progress in China. It promoted Confucian ideas that set up a legal system lasting for 2000 years. The Romans emphasized family with pater familias, promoted commercial agriculture and manufactured goods, and honored a great number of deities and gods. Han peoples emphasized on family ancestors, operated the silk roads to facilitate trade, and relied heavily on the teachings…

Role of Roman Emperors in the Spread of Christianity

The very cruelty and hate of Christianity that various Roman emperors exhibited actually worked in favor of that religion. As it is said, “The blood of martyrs is the seed of the Church,” for in many ways, persecution was beneficial to the new religion. Persecution gave the Christians a chance to flex their spiritual muscles, which many did, to great effect. The miracles that took place during these martyrdoms converted many of the pagans, which in turn led to more martyrdoms. Persecution served, essentially, to strengthen the faith of those already Christians, and to convert those who were not. By the very cruelties with which the emperors attempted to crush the young religion they actually aided it. But one emperor…

A Bust of the Emperor Caligula

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (b. A. D. 12, d. A. D. 41, emperor A. D. 37-41) represents a turning point in the early history of the Principate. Unfortunately, his is the most poorly documented reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The literary sources for these four years are meager, frequently anecdotal, and universally hostile. [[1]] As a result, not only are many of the events of the reign unclear, but Gaius himself appears more as a caricature than a real person, a crazed megalomaniac given to capricious cruelty and harebrained schemes. Although some headway can be made in disentangling truth from embellishment, the true character of the youthful emperor will forever elude us. Gaius’s Early Life and Reign Gaius was born…

The Byzantine Empire

When the western Roman Empire descended into chaos in 500 C.E. much of the Roman culture on the west side was lost, while the Eastern empire survived and preserved much of the surviving Roman Culture, but changed it’s name to the “Byzantine Empire,” showing individuality in many aspects between Rome and Byzantine. The Byzantine Empire was the surviving reminisces of the Roman Empire, which flourished into the oldest and longest lasting empire in our history. It began with the emperor Constantine who based much of the Byzantine Empire social structure of Rome. For example, the romans had two distinct classes, the Patricians and the Plebeians, the poor and the elite. The Byzantines had the poors and the Vassals. Although there…

Comparing the Fall of Han China and Roman Empire

Han China and Rome were two of the most powerful and popular empires of their time, but they fell like any other empire before them. Han China and Rome’s Empires had the same causes for their declines, but their effects are different. The major reasons for the fall of Rome are truly those that have to do with Rome’s political and economic state. One of the Rome’s problems prior to its fall was the lack of respect for authority, among the citizens and military forces. All the attacks from the barbarians caused problems in the military. This basically led to a lot of political turmoil because of all the chaos that was born, and it started to make the military…

Historical Foundations

Abstract Language has been a way for all to interact with everyone. It has been used to keep ideas, emotions, laws and social correctness intact for all cultures. Latin was the original language that was used to communicate amongst all cultures. Now societies today used a variety of vernacular languages such as, Spanish, Italian and English. In many cultures knowing more than one language is considered a high value. All aspects of culture, society and education were impacted during the Medieval times by the use of Latin. Until the 12th century the Roman Empire used Latin strictly as its language of choice until the Empire began to fall. The Roman Empire rule was very prominent in the Western World. When…

Holy Roman Empire

The spread of Lutheranism from 1521-1555 occurred due to many reasons in addition to the lack of strong central government. Other reasons include the fact that Charles V held many roles and therefore had other priorities that were more important than dealing with Lutheranism, the role of Fredrick the Wise and other Lutheran leaders and princes, and finally the appeal and popularity of Lutheranism which ultimately lead to the strength and the growth of the Luther movement. Perhaps the other reasons would not have happened if there was not a lack of central government, which suggests that this was the most important reason; however it is clear that these reasons all interlink, for example the princes may have never supported…

Roman Virtues Notes

In Rome during them time of Julius Caesar, a persons uprightness was measured by how well he/she conformed to four basic virtues. Virtue- conformity to moral and ethical principals; moral excellence. The four Roman Virtues Pietas- duty, or dutiful conduct towards his parents, relatives, ancestors, Gods, and country. Gravitas- “Gravity” — A sense of the importance of the matter at hand, responsibility and earnestness. Gravitas is the most important of the Roman virtues because it encompasses all that a Roman was supposed to be. It was a combination of physical, mental and emotional stability and duty that one should have or either the empire should have; first to the state and then to family. Simplicitias- comes close to plainness or…

Attila the Hun – Short Story

Why were the military campaigns of Attila the Hun successful? Attila’s military success will be explained through his ability to lure the Romans into war on a pretext whenever the Romans were vulnerable. His motives behind each war was to abstract as much money from the Romans as possible. Also to be explored will be his ability to assert psychological domination over the Eastern Emperor at a time when the two Empires were at peace. Furthermore to be examined will be his ability to portray himself as diplomatic through treaties and embassy consultations between the Romans and the Huns. Also to be looked at will be how successful was Attila’s at creating and seizing opportunities This will be done by…

The Arch of Constantine

The Arch of Constantine has stood as one of the triumphal symbols in Rome, along with the Triumphal Arch, and the Arch of Titus. It was in 313 A. D, when Emperor Constantine the Great established what is known as the largest arch in Rome, situated near the Colosseum. Through the structure, the reliefs, and the mixture of historic scriptural decoration, the Arch of Constantine communicates a manipulative message of Imperial power. In addition, it is in the Formalist approach: consisting of line, shape and other various features, as well as the Marxist approach: which deals with the manipulation of art by the ruling class and conveying of social messages, that we can witness this message of Roman imperialism. Firstly,…

Byzantine Empire Under Justinian

In the one of the articles written by Procopius, Justinian is glorified for his many great contributions mad during his reign. Justinian took what was already in the Roman Empire and basically tried his best to make it better. He was successful at doing so. Justinian takes the religions that the Byzantine have and finds it straying errors so he makes it stand on a firm foundation of a single faith. This doesn’t weaken the kingdom but strengthens it because it is a way of all the citizens to come together. Justinian also creates new cities that didn’t exist before. He even strengthens the law codes; Justinian found some of the laws contradicting each other so he simplifies them and…

Pax Romana

The lands arounf the Mediterranean Sea and most of the land in the Northwest Europe consists the Roman Empire. The life of Romans was very comfortable. There was indeed a beautiful way of living life. They have water and sewage system which enables them to have clean water. They have theaters and they also have public baths. The people who are wealthy lives in villas or mansions or big houses and they can afford to have a central heating system in their house. Roman Empire’s greatest part was the Pax Romana which is also called as Pax Augustea. It happened around 27 B. C. after the several Republican Civil Wars and it ended in 180 A. D. In english, Pax…

English Communicative Grammar

1. The following passage has not been edited. There is one error in each line. Write the incorrect word and the correction in your answer sheet against the correct question number. Remember to underline the word you have supplied. Incorrect Correct Often these days we hear and speak of the conquered (eg.) conquered conquest in nature, ‘the taming of a river’, ‘the war against insects’ (a) _________ _________ and so on. Often these phrases being used without consciously (b) _________ _________ attaching any value to them, but they have an underlying attitude of hostile towards Nature and Nature’s (c) _________ _________ creatures, a viewpoint which seeming to assume (d) _________ _________ Nature as an enemy that needs to being vanquished….

The Colosseum and Gladiators

While the Colosseum is a major tourist attraction today, back when the Roman Empire ruled it was a place of fighting, blood, and death. The colosseum was a source of entertainment for the people of Rome, as they witnessed the famed gladiators fighting to the death. The architectural design of the colosseum is an ingenious design, as well as the purpose and roles of it. The gladiators had an interesting history, as well as different classes and fighting styles. After the reign of the tyrant Nero, the colosseum, or Flavian Amphitheatre, was built on what was his Golden House during the age of Vespasian. It was dedicated in 80 CE by Titus in a ceremony that lasted in 100 days…

Theda Bara portrayal of Cleopatra

The 1917 Theda Bara portrayal of Cleopatra came across as threating and ominous as, at the time of filming, women were getting stronger willed and fighting for equal rights with men. Hollywood showed her image as alluring sexual and self-assured with good looks and air of authority and the power to control men as and when she deemed necessary. The depicted her as the reincarnation of Cleopatra and not just an image of an historical figure. Cleopatra relationship with Julius Caesar and that of Marc Anthony was one of control and alliance to obtain the necessary power needed to protect her beloved Egypt and not one of love for the person. The film showed how women were changing in modern…

The Fall of Rome

The fall of the Roman Empire was caused by many things. There were political, social, and economic issues all involved in the fall of Rome. Some issues were bigger than others, but I believe there are some major factors that led to the fall of Rome. I believe that the major factors that led to the fall of Rome were that barbarians knew how to attack the Roman Empire, the economy was going very bad, and Christianity was changing the way people were thinking. The first reason for the fall of Rome was that the barbarians knew how to attack the Roman Empire. Since Rome was running short on men to serve in the army, they needed to pay barbarians…

History of Gladiatorial Games

History of gladiatorial games Origins Early literary sources seldom agree on the origins of gladiators and the gladiator games.[1] In the late 1st century BC, Nicolaus of Damascus believed they were Etruscan.[2] A generation later, Livy wrote that they were first held in 310 BC by the Campanians in celebration of their victory over the Samnites.[3] Long after the games had ceased, the 7th century AD writer Isidore of Seville derived Latin lanista (manager of gladiators) from the Etruscan word for “executioner,” and the title of Charon (an official who accompanied the dead from the Roman gladiatorial arena) from Charun, psychopomp of the Etruscan underworld.[4] Roman historians emphasized the gladiator games as a foreign import, most likely Etruscan. This preference…

The Decline of the Roman Empire

The Roman Empire gave the world many good things. Rome gave the world Christianity, which is now the world’s largest religion. The Romans also gave the world their language. The Romans spoke Latin, which is the base for most languages used today. Many of these languages include English, Spanish, Italian, French, and Portuguese. This leads to the question. If Rome was such a powerful empire, then what led to the decline of the Roman Empire? The fall of the Western Roman Empire was caused by three of the many reasons internal decay, lack of money, and invading tribes. First, one of the reasons that led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire was cause by inside decay. It has…

The Dark Ages

The period called the Dark Ages is a period of time where Europeans made progress despite enormous difficulties. There are six main things that contributed to calling this time the Dark Ages. They include the fall of Rome, a mini ice age, The Great Schism, plague, peasant revolt, and the Hundred Years War. The fall of Rome began when a man named Alaric launched his third attack on the city of Rome. Alaric, the leader of the Visigoths, was forced out of Germany by Attila the Hun and his army leaving them no other choice but to invade Rome for the third time. After the fall of Rome, there was a mini ice age, which caused many health, food, and…

Did Augustus Restore the Republic?

SYNOPSIS “I transferred the Republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and people of Rome” Did Augustus Restore The Republic? Augustus clearly made an impression in European history achieving much, conquering many and controlling the majority, he did not restore the republic. Adopting a piecemeal strategy, Augustus gradually silenced potential threats to his ambitions to control the Roman Empire under the semblance of restoring the Republic. Deceitful in masking his intent, Augustus acted as if he was reconstituting the Republic, using this as a device to conceal his intent, creating a model of covert dictatorship, birthing the age of the Roman Emperor, coercing and manipulating the people and senate, revolutionising the underlying power structure of the Roman…

Introduction of Banquet

History The idea of banqueting is ancient (see Sellisternium, Belshazzar’s Feast, and Mead halls). In the 16th century, a banquet was very different from our modern perception and stems from the medieval ‘ceremony of the void’. After dinner, the guests would stand and drink sweet wine and spices while the table was cleared, or ‘voided’ (Later in the 17th century ‘void’ would be replaced with the French ‘dessert’). During the 16th century, guests would no longer stand in the great chamber whilst the table was cleared and the room prepared for entertainment, but would retire to the parlour or banqueting room. As the idea of banqueting developed, it could take place at any time during the day and have much…

Agrippina the Younger – Rome a symbol of strength

Rome a symbol of strength, empowerment and prosperity for many, leaving no doubt in modern historians thoughts that this utopia was one of the most prominent of the ancient era’s. One dynasty within this epoch stands out, as being one of the most provocative and influential was the Julio-Claudian dynasty. This period was introduced with the instigation of the emperor Julio Augustus, known as one of the most appreciated emperors in Roman history. After Augustus came the rulers Tiberius, Gaius Germanicus (Caligula), Claudius and Nero. With every new ruler the amount of power and wealth in the city swelled, some even say that it was the golden age of Roman literature and arts. Each of these power broker’s have one…

Assess the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Reign of Tiberius

Although the early years of the reign of Tiberius were considered to be successful and prosperous, it is noted that they were not without negative aspects. The role of Princeps was a large task, like “holding a wolf by the ears” (Suetonius), especially succeeding the successful reign of the well liked Augustus, and a reliable leader was essential in order to sustain stability. This involved stepping up to a role where the protection of the country was put first and a real leader was required to run all aspects of the kingdom. However, there is controversy as to whether Tiberius really stepped up to the role as efficiently as others. He was definitely a man of tradition, but was not…

Art and Literature in Augustan Rome

The beginning of this time period comes with the death of Julius Caesar and the rise to power of his nephew, Octavius. He was in the Second Triumvirate that was formed to maintain order in Rome. Octavian, Marcus Lepidus, and Marc Antony ruled formally unlike the informal triumvirate of Julius Caesar. The triumvirate set out to execute members of the conspiracy against Julius Caesar. In 42 BC, Brutus and Cassius were finally defeated. In the following years the triumvirate diminished. In 36 BC, Lepidus retired. Marc Antony began to have affairs with Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt. These affairs briefly came to a pause when Antony married Octavian’s sister Octavia. Marc Antony later returns to Egypt and marries Cleopatra. This…

The Roman Empire During the Reign of Tiberius

The Julio-Claudians are the four emperors that succeeded Augustus following his death in AD14. The Julio-Claudians were Roman Nobles with an impressive and significant ancestry in the Roman Empire. It was during the Julio-Claudian reign that the Roman Empire reached an optimum level of power and wealth, and has been seen as the golden age of Roman arts and literature. The beginning of the Julio-Claudian dynasty was signified by the succession of Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar, most commonly known as Tiberius, to the throne in AD14. Tiberius appears to have been the most capable and experienced of the Julio-Claudian emperors, due to his military, administrative and diplomatic abilities. He was a capable and forceful leader, who enforced justice within the…

Tacitus’ The Burning of Rome

Tacitus’ “The Burning of Rome” translated by George Gilbert Ramsay shows its significance, style, and beliefs of the burning of Rome. A large portion of Ancient Rome flares during the Emperor Nero’s reign. Rather than rebuild the city to it’s old plan, Nero built a gigantic palace where the burned buildings had been. Rumors were told that Nero started the fire. To put an end therefore to this rumor, he shifted the charge onto others, and inflicted the most cruel tortures upon a body of men detested for their abominations, and popularly known by the name of Christians (Ramsay 327). The significance of Ancient Rome limit was placed to the height of houses; open spaces were left; and colonnades were…

Historical Methods-Archaeology

Julius Caesar is probably the most famous Roman of all. As dictator, he paved the way for the establishment of the Roman Empire under his great-nephew Augustus, more infamously, had a love affair with Cleopatra of Egypt, and even invented the leap year, before being assassinated by friends and colleagues who had previously supported him. But before his dictatorship he had conquered a vast area of Europe in an incredibly short time. Caesar’s Gallic War is the most detailed eye-witness account of war that survives from the Greek or Roman world. In Book I, chapter 5 of his Gallic War, Julius Caesar writes of the Helvetii’s practice of migrating en masse and of burning down their oppida or walled towns,…