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Role of Community and Public Health Essay

Community has a great effect on the health and well-being of the residents that live there. It is important that residents are aware of community resources available, as well as take advantage of them to benefit themselves, and possibly reduce visits to the doctors and promote their health. Community and public health nursing is readily available in all communities, especially that of V.S., which is North Hollywood. The six basic elements of nursing practice incorporated in community health programs and services are: (1) promotion of healthful living 
(2) prevention of health problems 
(3) treatment of disorders 
(4) rehabilitation 
(5) evaluation and 
(6) research (“Current Nursing”, 2013).

The role of community and public health nursing in this community’s well-being through exercise classes, senior centers for development of intellectual and social aspects, and home health services that offer nurse, physical therapy, and home aids to the patients home, as ordered by MDs. In the case of V.S.’s community, these services that the form of the YMCA for senior-aimed group exercise classes, Shiraz ADHC and North Hollywood Senior center for recreational and daily health maintenance, as well as communication and relaxation with peers, and AGM Home Health Care as one of the home health service that serves the community. With these available resources, and many more, residents can take advantage of self-health promotion, education, and have places to develop intellectual, interactive, and recreational activities.

Cultural Diversity

Cultural diversity plays a big role in the types of community centers and resources available. For example, because there is a large minority immigrant population of the Russian and Armenian descent in the area, having Shiraz ADHC, cater to that population makes the transition easier and their residence in the area smoother as well. As far as the YMCA, most of the attendees and instructors are of the Hispanic descent, and speak the language, which helps the attendees who are Hispanic immigrants easily understand and want to attend the classes available.

The North Hollywood Senior Center takes place at a nearby park, and has a variety of nationalities and vulnerable populations such as the elderly and low income populations, and provides recreational activities and community connections. AGM Home Health Care offers services to the area, and outside, and serves the vulnerable population of the elderly, frail, and knowledge deficient on self-care. Overall, there are many community resources that reach out to vulnerable populations and involve cultural diversity, making it easier for different types of residents to be accustomed to life in the community.

Epidemiological influences

Epidemiological influences within V.S.’s community involve abundance of fast food chains and restaurants, and some smoking around the community, that can cause for second hand smoke and cardiovascular and respiratory harm. According to “World Health Organization” (2014) epidemiology is “ the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events (including disease), and the application of this study to the control of diseases and other health problems”.

With the immediate surroundings of V.S.’s dwelling having many restaurants, cafes, and food chains, it makes nutrition difficult to keep control of, which not only influences diabetic status, but weight, cardiovascular, and over all well-being as well. It is important to instruct patients that have special diets especially, about the need for fresh vegetables and foods to promote proper metabolic processes. Also, avoiding areas of smoke and hazards will greatly improve respiratory and cardiovascular function, and decrease patients’ and residents risks of complications related to them.

Healthy People 2020

Healthy People 2020 helps sets milestones and goals for the overall health and wellbeing of the nation. In the case of V.S., a Leading Health Indicator (LHI) to focus on would be – Reduce the proportion of persons with diabetes with an A1c value greater than 9 percent (“Healthy people”, 2014). There are many nursing diagnoses that relate to the community of V.S., three of which are:

1. Risk for improper nutrition due to abundance of fast food in community;

2. Readiness for enhanced self-health management due to available resources as evidenced by patient verbalization;

3. Knowledge deficit on remaining available community resources due to ineffective community health promotion (“Nursing diagnosis list”, 2014).

Interventions

To each diagnosis, there must be an intervention to help improve the status, and help achieve the LHI goal. In the case of risk for improper nutrition due to abundance of fast food in community, it is important to educate the patient, caregiver, and family members about the negativities of eating fast food on a regular basis, as opposed to controlling the type of food entering the body, in the form of fresh vegetables, fruits, and meats. Also, emphasizing the importance of proper diabetic diet, and the risks with non compliance such as retinopathy, neuropathy, increase in DMII symptoms, and an overall decline in physical health related to diabetic complications, may help patient make better decisions regarding diet.

Readiness for enhanced self-health management due to available resources as evidenced by patient verbalization has an intervention of assisting patient make a step-by-step plan as to how to begin and continue through with the self-health management. Finally, knowledge deficit on remaining available community resources due to ineffective community health promotion has an intervention of educating patient and family regarding additional community centers, such as senior centers, meals on wheels, parks, mall walker programs, senior field trip programs, and others. By providing constant updates and education to patient and family, there will be an abundance of knowledge regarding services in the community that can be used by the client, making it easier, safer, and more enjoyable for he or she to reside in the community.

Nurse Advocacy in Communities

The nurse’s role as advocate does not just remain within the confines of a hospital, clinic, or office. Making sure that the patient’s environment and community is sufficient and safe for the patient is within the advocacy line of the nurse as well. One way that nurses can advocate in communities is by visiting the centers that pertain to their patient’s, analyzing how they work, and making suggestions to management regarding changes to benefit the facility and residents. For example, in the case of the YMCA, a suggestion could include having on-site medical staff to assist in case of emergency, injury, or need, especially while working with elderly clients. Another suggestion would be for the ADHC to provide follow-up phone calls or visits to patient homes, or provide the same services during the weekend for patient who do not have a steady support system or care system at home. By giving the facilities a nursing point of view, it will help improve these already great facilities by incorporating safe nursing and health care, for a truly holistic experience.

Conclusion

Community health nursing and public health is a new aspect that must be addressed by nurses during patient care. Because patents spend the majority of their time in their communities and not in hospital, clinics, or other facilities with proper nursing care, assessing and being knowledgeable of his or her community will help nurses tailor treatments and education with regards to discrepancies in the community. Nursing care is holistic, and should encompass both home and hospital stays. Promoting proper self-health care to patients and families by encouraging use of proper community services and avoiding negative aspects of it will help prevent complications, and promote holistic health care.

References
Current Nursing. (2013). Retrieved from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/theories_ community_health_nursing.html
Healthy people. (2014). Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/node/3514/ objectives#4123
Nursing diagnosis list. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.nandanursingdiagnosislist.org World health organization. (2014). Retrieved from http:// www.who.int/ topics/ epidemiology/en/


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