1. List four (4) 18th century European wars. p.542
2. Define, in short, John Locke’s political philosophy. p.542-
3 3. What was Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s political argument? p.543
4. European monarchs that supported some Enlightenment ideas were called “enlightened despots”. Who were these monarchs (examples) and why did they favor some Enlightenment ideas? P.543
5. What is Nicolas-Jacques Conte famous for? P.544
6. Describe at least 3 ways in which women were instrumental in the dissemination of new ideas. P.545 7. The intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment most deeply influenced what emerging class in Europe? P.545 8. What were folk cultures and what were some of their characteristics? P.546-7 9. What two (2) related problems did the British face after defeating the French in 1763? P.547 10. Which Amerindian chief drove the British from some western outposts and raided Virginia and Pennsylvania at the end of the Seven Years’ War? p.547 11. What was the purpose of the Proclamation of 1763? P.547
12. What sparked a political confrontation that led to rebellion in the British N. American colonies? P.548 13. What was the Stamp Act of 1765? P.548
14. Who were the Sons of Liberty? p.548
15. What violent event radicalized many colonists against the British? p.548 16. Before declaring its independence (essentially war), list at least three (3) tactics used by American colonists in response to British policies. P.548 17. Who wrote the inflammatory pamphlet Common Sense? p.549
18. Read the excerpt from the Declaration of Independence. What kind of “rights” are expressed in the excerpt and what famous British philosopher popularized it? p.549 19. What convinced the French to enter the war on the side of the U.S. in 1778? P.550 20. What were at least two negative aspects of the government under the Articles of Confederation? p.551 21. Why were slaves counted as 3/5 of a person when considering representation? P.551 22. Until what year did the U.S. Constitution permit the slave trade to continue? p.551 23. What happened to King Louis XVI as a result of the French Revolution? p.552 24. (a)Describe the makeup of the Estates General.
(b) Why did Louis XVI call a meeting of the Estates General after 175 yrs of recess? P.552-3 25. Which French Estate declared itself to be the National Assembly? p.554 26. What was the Bastille and what prompted common people to attack it in 1793? pp.554-5 27. List four things that were accomplished by the new French constitution. p.555 28. What happened when rumors of counter-revolutionary plots circulated throughout working-class neighborhoods? p.555 29. With whom did Robespierre forge an alliance? p.556
30. What was the period of repression led by Robespierre called? p.556 31. Why did Robespierre remove Sunday from the new calendar? p.556 32. Why did Napoleon succeed in forming Europe’s first popular dictatorship? p.557 33. How did Napoleon achieve support of the peasantry and the middle class? p.557 34. Napoleon’s arch nemesis was Britain, which he attempted to invade in 1805. What was the name of the decisive naval battle and what was the outcome? p.557 35. Napoleon’s invasion of what country eventually led to his demise? p.557-561 36.
At what famous battle was Napoleon finally defeated after only one hundred days in power? p.561 37. What was the financial worth of Saint Domingue to French trade? P. 561 38. What destabilized the colonial government of Saint Domingue (Haiti)? p.561 39. What was the main purpose of the Congress of Vienna? p.563 40. The revolutions of 1848 were widespread across Europe and were inspired by what? p.564 41. Greece gained its independence in 1830 from whom? P.564
Free Response Focus Questions: Answer these questions in a 5-7 sentence paragraph. In your own words. Do not simply copy from the book and memorize the response. Know it. Support your response with plenty of facts.
Understand where events fall historically (global context, cause/effect, etc)
1. How were the revolutions of the 18th century inspired by a body of new ideas? Discuss Locke and Rousseau in your response.
2. After defeating the French in North America in 1763, the British faced the related problems of continued westward expansion by its settlers and paying for governing the colonies (taxation). What did the British government do in response to these problems and how did they contribute to colonists’ resentment of the British government and eventual war?
3. Describe the nature of the fiscal crisis that triggered the French Revolution.
4. What were some of the reasons for the failure of the French Revolution to initiate lasting representative government and for the rise of the new dictatorship?
5. What were the causes of the revolution in Saint Domingue?
6. The Enlightenment as a social and intellectual movement impacted many segments of society. How did this movement affect women in the elite classes and the common women during the revolutions?
Compare/Contrast Thesis statement
7. Compare and contrast the goals and outcomes of the French and Haitian Revolutions.