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Reviewer Prelims Essay

Limitations to Economic Models
Models: > an abstract generalization of how relevant facts actually relate to one another. > simplified pictures of reality
1. Liberal Use of Assumptions
2. Ceteris Paribus – Everything else remains constant
3. Short Run – Long Run
> Short Run is a time range within which output can be adjusted only by changing the amounts of variable inputs remain unchanged. > Long run is a time period that is long enough to permit changes in all inputs both fixed & variable. ** Fixed – constant/doesn’t change
** Variable – varies
4. The Use of Graph
> Visual representations of the relationship between 2 variables. ** Cartesian Plane – Rene Descartes
Y axis – Independent|Cause
X axis – Dependent|Effect

1. Positive
based on facts
use to describe an occurrence of an event
answ. the question, What is? Or What will be?
2. Normative
based on opinion
subjective / judgmental
answ. the question,
What ought to be? Or What should be?

Branches of Economics
– broad
– birds eye view
– aggregate demand and supply
– contributions made by different sectors in
the economy

small / individual –
particular / specific –
demand and supply –
detailed –
close-up view –

Implications of Scarcity
1. The need to make choice
a. Opportunity
b. Benefit or Punishment
c. Value Judgment
2. Rationing Device
3. Competition
Four Economic Resources
Capital – physical or human capital
Land – natural resources (surface | beneath)
Labor – blue collar or white collar
– is an effort
– human skills
Entrepreneur – 4 functions: > Initiative
> Business Policy
> Innovator
> Risk Taker

1. Availability of Resources
Products > Goods – tangible
> Services – intangible
Two Parties – producer
– demanders (customers)

2. Level of Production
Two Approaches – Mkt. Aggregation (macro)
– Mkt. Segmentation (micro)

3. Manner, Methods and Techniques
Procedure of Productions
3 Methods
a. Capital – Intensive
(capital > labor)
b. Labor – Intensive
(labor > capital)
c. Intermediate – Production
(capital = labor)

4. Target Clients / Customer
2 Methods
a. Direct (modern)
Networking and Direct Selling
b. Indirect (traditional)
Manufacturer  Advertiser  Wholesaler  Retailers  Consumer

5. Price – reasonable
Profitable  Producers  Profit
 Cost
Affordable  Consumers  Cost

Basic Economic Activities
1. Production
Inputs  Procedures  Outputs
Classification of Products
1. Basic
2. Luxury
3. Public
4. Free
5. Economic Needs
2. Distribution – Reach
Two Methods of Distribution
a. Non-conventional – cheapest but slowest
b. Conventional – expensive but fast
3. Exchange
Barter Sytem
Medium of Exhange
Legal Tender – Philippine peso
Non-legal tender – Foreign currency


Communication > Commun (oe)
> Communis – common
> Communicare – to share

Communication Effectiveness
Words – 7%
Non-Verbal – 93% : Vocal – 38% | Visual – 55%

Vocal > rate: phasing of voice
> voice quality
> voice pitch

Visual > oculesics (sight)
> haptics (touch)
> kinetics (body movement)
> accecories
> chronemics
> olfactics (hearing)
> proxemics (special)

** Public Domain
** General Knowledge
**Jargons – the technical terminology
or characteristics idiom of a special
activity or group.

Communication Barrier

1. Poor word choice
2. Differing connotations
3. Inappropriate inferences (conclusions)
4. Grammar, Spelling, Punctuation and sentence structure
5. Wrong type of message
6. Poor appearance of the sender of the oral message
7. Poor appearance of written message
8. Distracting environmental factors
9. Receiver incapable of receiving message
10. Poor listening
11. Lack of interest
12. Lack of knowledge needed to understand
13. Different cultural perceptions
14. Language difficulty
15. Emotional state
16. Bias

Capacity to shift from one perspective to another
Self-experience  wider society
Self-centric views  acceptance and understanding of others History of Sociology
19th century
French revolution
* democratic views starts to sprung
* capitalist vs. laborers
* rise of machinery
* social-problems
– Scientific revolution
Pioneers of Sociology
1. Auguste Comte
Father of sociology
Coined the term socio(companion) and logy(study)
2. Herbert Spencer
“Society is a product of evolution”
Social Darwinism influenced him
Sociobiologist were not accepted in modern society
3. Karl Marx
Employed sociological inquiry with himself
Conflict perspective
History of the have and have nots
4. Emile Durkheim
Father of Modern Sociology
Social facts
The degree of social integration
5. Max Weber
Contradicting the political and economic ideas of Karl Marx
Social interaction concept
“rise of Protestantism was a major contributor to the progress of capitalism and industrialization” Culture – way of life
Material and Non-material culture
Beliefs and traditions
Modern/popular culture – personality
Social Perspectives:
1. Social Funtionalist Theory – Functionalists believe that society is held together by social consensus, in which members of the society agree upon, and work together to achieve, what is best for society as a whole. 2. Social Interaction Theory (symbolic interactionalism – which focuses on how people act according to their interpretations of the meaning of their world. 3. Social Conflict theory – which focuses on the negative, conflicted, ever-changing nature of society.


Living Like Jesus
The Jesus of history and of being human
Living like Jesus is COMPLICATED and PROBLEMATIC because of his supernatural state It is a HUGE responsibility to live like him
1. Rebel
A non-conformist; who do not abide
He was defiant
He was extraordinary because of his differing beliefs
2. Reformist
A person who goes for something better
3. Revolutionary
A dreamer and an active worker
Doesn’t leave anything to chance
Never works alone
4. Radical
Who do not think and act like the rest
Someone who challenges a particular order

A carpenter
Jesus’s time
Gross injustice that was fed by monstrous greed
Impoverished sufferings
Patriarchal culture

Broke away from the way people think during his time

MORALITY – value
Something that is important to us
Actions are always a product of choices
Exclusive to human actions
Human beings are rational beings
Reasoning is a product of intelligence

3 Font principles of Christian Morality
1. Person
2. Context
3. Acts and Consequences

Order means survival
Survival is everybody’s interest
Society comes together to create a system of support
If one’s freedom ends, somebody’s freedom begins
Co-existence demands Respect
Christianity is a success story
People find ways to co-exist with one another
People make agreement and collective decisions to have ORDER in the community Order is beauty and beauty is life

** Schechems, Samaria
At the well of Schechem he met a woman
Ostrasize – excluded/isolated; nobody relates to you

** The Rational being is the Moral Being
Base from FREEDOM
A moral person is someone who is free to do what he/she likes(chooses to do) for as long as he/she does not infringe Infringe – violates the freedom of others
Freedom is not absolute
Responsible Freedom – freedom is a responsibility
Penology “penal”


Business English

Communicative Competence
Knowledge of the Language
Ability to use the Language

1. Types of Letters

2. “Simulated Company”
Nature of Business

3. Business Application Letter
Curriculum Vitae

Standard Formal English
No errors
No contractions
Correct tenses


** Simulation
– business / company
– Social Responsibility

** Figures of Speech = Tropes

Parts of a Letter:
1. Date Line. – The month, day, and year the letter is typed. 2. Inside Address. – The name and address of the person to whom the letter is being sent. 3. Salutation. – An opening greeting such as Dear Ms. Jones. 4. Body. – The text of the letter.

5. Complimentary Closing. – A closing to the letter such as Sincerely or Yours truly. 6. Signature. – The writer’s signature.
7. Writer’s Identification. – The writer’s typed name and address.


Masining / Malikhaing Pagpapahayag
Inilipat sa GEC s2004
Dating Retorika na ayon sa CHED memo #59, s1996
Mga Paksa:
1. Kalikasan at simula ng Retorika
2. Masining na pagpapahayag
(pasulat at pasalita)
3. Kritikal na pagbasa sa mga sulatin
4. Pagsulat ng 4 na uri ng pagpapahayag
2 uri ng Pagpapahayag:
1. Traditional
2. Conventional (makabago)
1. Talambuhay ng sarili
2. Talambuhay ng ibang tao
1. Paksa
2. Pagkalap ng impormasyon
3. Pagbabalangkas
4. Pagbasa
5. Muling pagsulat
6. Publikasyon/paglilimbay
Paraan – istilo, wika , karakter, angkop sa bumabasa, angkop sa tema, paglalarawan ng karakter

1. Maanyong Dipinisyon – uri/klase
2. Dipinisyong Pasanaysay – Kontrasyon

** Retorika – magaling na tagapagsalita

Classical Greek Rethoric
1. Corax – Ama ng Greek Rhetoric
Bahagi ng Talunmpati
1. Proem
2. Narrative/Narration
3. Statement of Argument
4. Refutation/opposing argument
5. Summary/Conclusion
** Proem – pagpapakilala sa nilalaman ng talumpati
** Summary – buong punto o buod ng paksa

2. Tisias – estudyante ni Corax
Bahagi ng Talumpati
1. Prologue
2. Narrative
3. Argument
4. Epilogue
** Prologue – pagkuha sa atensyon ng takapakinig habang sinasabi ang introduksyon

3. Aristotle
Bahagi ng Talumpati
1. Exordium
2. Narratio
3. Divisio (argument)
4. Confirmatio (affirmative)
5. Confutatio (refutation)
6. Conclusio
** Exordium – pagkakaroon ng interaksyon sa tagapagsalita at sa takapakinig mula sa introduksyon

Medieval Rhetoric
1. Cicero
5 Canons of Rhetoric
1. Inventio (invention)
2. Despositio (arrangement)
3. Elocotiu (style)
4. Memoria (memory)
5. Action (delivery)
** Inventio – paksa, audience, sitwasyon
** Despositio – balangkas
** Elocotiu – figures of speech
** Memoria – kaisipan

2. Quintillian
“Good man speaking well”
Karakter ng isang speaker
Tinaguriang Roman Wiseman

3. Tertullian
Unang nagtranslate ng Holy Scripture
Ama ng Latin Christianity
Nagsulat ng Latin Christian Literature
Nag-introduce sa Holy Trinity

4. Lucian
Native speaker ng barbarian

5. Hermogenes
Griyegong rhetoric
Legal documents
Ang retorika ay ang pagkakaroon ng mahusay na pagsasalita

6. Capella
Didactic method

7. St. Augustine

8. Cassiodorous
Letter writing

9. Isidore
Encyclopedia of Human Knowledge
Dialectic approach

10. Al Quin
Parliamentary Procedure
11. Bede
Poetry / poetic way of writing

12. Nother Labeo
Latin  German Literature

13. Boethius

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