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Review of Related Literature Essay

The review of related literature for this study focuses on different previous studies about working students locally and outside the country. These studies identify models and several case study of a working student including the reasons why students are force to work are also enumerated. (cited,.) ( Hindi ako sure dito)

Local Literature

According to the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) about 216,000 students in the country are currently juggling school and work, this figure is about 8% of the total number of college students in the country. CHED said working students today are mostly into food service, entertainment and sales, apart from their usual stints as library and research assistants. “Due to financial crisis that’s why they need a extra income,” said lawyer Julito Vitriolo, officer-in-charge at CHED’s office of the executive director.

He also added that these students are forced to work because of higher commodity prices and tuition fees. The CHED said that only 50% of working students get to finish college, as many cannot cope and cannot concentrate on their studies, while some have poor health, while others give up because of insufficient funds.CHED advised working students to get jobs that are not that demanding, and that are more closely related to their courses.


According to the National Center for Education Statistics in America, in 2007 nearly half (45 percent) of “traditional” undergraduates—that is, students between the ages of sixteen and twenty-four attending college full time—worked while enrolled. About 80 percent of traditional-age undergraduates attending college part time worked while enrolled. The amount of time students spend working has been of increasing concern for the educators that serve them and, in some instances, the students themselves. Recent data would indicate that 80% of American undergraduates worked while attending college in 1999-2000 (King, 2003).This represents an 8% increase over the class less than a decade previously, among whom 72% worked (Cuccaro-Alamin & Choy,1998). Further, there appears to be a strong body of literature that points to the positive effects of not working versus working while attending college (King, 2002; Pascarella& Terenzini, 1991).

As College Board policy analyst Sandy Baum argues in a 2010 collection of essays I edited, Understanding the Working College Student: New Research and Its Implications for Policy and Practice, while some of these students are awarded “work” as part of their financial aid package, other students either do not receive work-study funding or find such awards insufficient to cover the costs of attendance. Some traditional-age students may use employment as a way to explore career options or earn spending money.

For other students, particularly adult students, work is a part of their identity, as Carol Kasworm, a professor of adult education at North Carolina State University, and other contributors to Understanding the Working College Student point out. Regardless of the reason for working, trying to meet the multiple and sometimes conflicting simultaneous demands of the roles of student, employee, parent, and so on often creates high levels of stress and anxiety, making it less likely that students will complete their degrees. How does Working Affects Students’ Success (?)

Some researchers have reported that “the more time a student devotes to employment, the less he or she has for either academic or social activities” (Fjortoft, 1995). Although this may leave the students with less time, what is the impact on college success? Some studies have looked at the effects of working on social and academic integration—or student engagement. This is an important component in student behavior theory (Bean, 1985; Pascarella & Staver, 1985; Tinto, 1975) that has long been linked with persistence (Kuh, 1995; Pascarella & Terrenzini, 1983).

Lundberg (2004) examined a national sample of 3,774 responses to the College Student Experiences Questionnaire (CSEQ) and found that students working more than 20 hours per week reported significantly fewer interactions with faculty and lower quality student relationships with peers. Cheng (2004) examined how work affected the academic and social experience of college students, using a mixed method design, and found “no significant difference between working and nonworking students in their academic and social experience, though working students’ GPAs are lower than those of the nonworking”(p. 1).


http://www.aaup.org/article/understanding-working-college-student#.VLCOT9KUf5N http://indiana.edu/~ipas1/workingstudentbrief.pdf

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