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Research proposal Essay

Roselle Jardin Ranario, DPA
Research Adviser

October 2013

Thinking that this was impossible to achieve made us realize that everything would be possible especially with enough help and support from people around us. Not only motivating us but also helped us to pursue our goal. They gave us the courage to do good and guided all throughout. It is our pleasure to thank those who made this possible.

To our Heavenly Father, for His divine providence and for giving us enough strength.

To our families, for their moral and financial support especially during difficult times.

To our very supportive adviser, Dr. Roselle Jardin-Ronario, DPA for giving us words of wisdom and guiding us all throughout. Thank you also for the patience and encouragements.


TitlePage Number

Rationale4 Theoretical Background7
Statement of the Problem13
Significance of the Study14
Research Design
Research Environment
Research Respondents
Research Instrument
Selected based on the performance
Data Gathering Procedures23
Treatment of Data



The love and eagerness to know is the beginning of a beautiful journey towards learning. The moment we want to know about any concept, we tend to develop attachment towards it. By then, we would like to learn more about the concept and would do anything to know better.

Statistically, Mathematics has been the academic subject that has presented the greatest challenge to many students. Many researchers suggest that difficulties in learning mathematics begin as early as pre-school. They argue that inadequate knowledge and ineffective teaching by some teachers plant the seed for future complications in the mathematics classroom.

In an effort to address the challenge of poor academic performance in math, there is an abundant amount of literature and research on improvement in methods of math instruction. Since then, teachers are trying to utilize their creativity and initiative to grasp more strategies on how to develop the mathematical ability of learners effectively.

The students start to dislike math because they do not understand. It builds up each grade level to the point that they hate it because they have difficulty in learning. The learners were not able to master the competency that they need to master each grade level. And because of this, learners develop attitude and anxiety towards math.

Computer assisted instruction being used by many Asian countries in school especially in teaching math subject is of great help for both teachers and students. This can help learners understand well the concept of numbers, symbols, and objects through clear visual, accurate, and fast learning process and develop more of their mathematical ability. Through this, learners are now more confident to learn math and learning is more effective when teaching-learning method is incorporated with both verbal and visual entity with the use of computer assisted instruction.

This concern draws an interest to the researchers to know the Asian people’s math attitudes and anxieties in computer assisted instructions. The researchers attempt to help the learners to appreciate math more and with it, they will be able to start learning math better. In the long run, the learners will be able to develop their mathematical ability and be able to make use of it on their future chosen field. With the findings, the researchers may also be able to relate it to the math learners since the researchers themselves are also a math instructor in one of the schools in Asia. The researchers may come up with effective strategies in the teaching-learning environment with the learners to improve their math performance.

Theoretical Background

This study is anchored by these two theories; Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory and Vygotsky’s Social Constructivist Theory. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory is composed of four processes of goal realization: self-observation, self-evaluation, self-reaction and self-efficacy. These components are interrelated, each having an effect on motivation and goal attainment (Redmond, 2010).

Self-observation–Observing oneself can inform and motivate. It can be used to assess one’s progress toward goal attainment as well as motivate behavioral changes. There are two important factors with regards to self-observation: regularity and proximity. Regularity means the behavior should be continually observed, whereas proximity means the behavior should be observed while it occurs, or shortly after. Alone, self-observation is insufficient because motivation depends on one’s expectations of outcomes and efficacy (Zimmerman & Schunk, 2001).

Self-evaluation– Self-evaluation compares an individual’s current performance with a desired performance or goal. It is affected by the standards set and the importance of the goals. Goals must be specific and important; therefore, goals such as, “do your best” are vague and will not motivate. Schunk and Zimmerman (1994) state that “specific goals specify the amount of effort required for success and boost self-efficacy because progress is easy to gauge.” If one has little regard for his goal he will not evaluate performance.

There are two types of self-evaluation standards: absolute and normative. For example, a grading scale would be an example of a fixed or absolute standard. A social comparison such as evaluating one’s behavior or performance against other individuals is an example of a normative standard (Zimmerman &Schunk, 2001). People gain satisfaction when they achieve goals that they value. When individuals achieve these valued goals, they are more likely to continue to exert a high level of effort, since sub-standard performance will no longer provide satisfaction (Bandura, 1989).

Self-reaction– Reactions to one’s performance can be motivating. If the progress made is deemed acceptable, then one will have a feeling of self-efficacy with regard to continuing, and will be motivated towards the achievement of their goal. A negative self-evaluation might also be motivating in that one may desire to work harder provided that they consider the goal to be valuable. Self-reaction also allows a person to re-evaluate their goals in conjunction with their attainments (Bandura, 1989). If a person has achieved a goal, they are likely to re-evaluate and raise the standard (goal); whereas, if a person has not achieved the goal, they are likely to re-evaluate and lower the standard (goal) to an achievable goal.

Self-efficacy– One’s belief in the likelihood of goal completion can be motivating in itself (Van der Bijl&Shortridge-Baggett, 2002). “Self-efficacy refers to people’s judgements about their capability to perform particular tasks. Task-related self-efficacy increases the effort and persistence towards challenging tasks; therefore, increasing the likelihood that they will be completed” (Barling & Beattie, 1983, as cited in Axtell & Parker, 2003, p. 114).

Vygotsky (as cited by Whitcomb, 2002) stresses that cognitive development is a social activity. “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological).” Adolescents develop their own thoughts and attitudes through social interaction and communication with peers and other members of society. (Rogoff, et al, 2007). They can also learn by observing the activities and interactions of others in a social setting. Adolescent students must have access to a more knowledgeable person or persons with whom they can communicate and interact socially.

Realizing this will help keep teachers aware of just how meaningful their interactions and attitudes are to a student, and how what they say and do can influence a student. Depending on the social context of the classroom, a student may benefit from being able to interact freely and socially with other students as they learn. The teacher may be socially less approachable in the classroom context. A ten year study at Harvard (Crouch, & Mazur, 2001) showed that most students learn more from group learning activities than they do studying alone or listening to the teacher dispense information. When students are required to explain their ideas to their peers in a dialogue, rather than recite whatever “correct” explanation the teacher has told them, they more fully engage their minds, using their own cultural tools and opening their own personal beliefs to eventual modification.

Vygotsky’s important notion state that students learn most effectively when they are given tasks which are a little too difficult for an individual to accomplish alone but can be mastered through social cooperation, is called teaching in the students’ Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). What he means is that if the lessons and tasks given to a student are not close enough “proximal” to what the student finds challenging, then the student will not develop. Trivial exercises result in mostly boredom and little to no cognitive development. On the other end of the spectrum, if a task is too difficult for students, even when they can work together, then they will simply fail at it and also achieve little development. So there is an optimal zone, or “magic middle”, where students are challenged, but can cooperate socially to increase their mastery of the task. Such a task is said to be within the ZPD.

The concept of a ZPD can also be applied to the way adolescents think and develop. Most adolescents want to develop into adults and join adult society, perhaps to be free from their diminished status below the adults within society, particularly in our culture. If we consider that operating within the ZPD is the most efficient way to develop the cognitive and social functions of an adult, then it is only natural that adolescents tend to form groups of their peers and then attempt to understand and imitate adult social and cultural behaviors. The ZPD is very strongly evidenced by classroom studies. A study at the University of Illinois (Wenning, & Wenning, 2006) on the implementation of new inquiry-based lab activities, which are more challenging and more work for both students and instructors, found that these new and difficult activities must be introduced gradually.

The research group achieved great success when they began the course with lab activities that were the easiest to understand within the pre-existing scaffolding (in this case, their educational background) and within the students’ ZPD. As the course progressed, the lab activities became increasingly complex, but the students continued to succeed and increased their skills and understanding. By working within their ZPD, they were able to shift it ever higher and achieve mastery, just as Vygotsky would have predicted. When I become a physics teacher, I know I will have to use this same approach: First I will have to investigate and identify my students’ ZPD, as they did in the Illinois study.(Wenning, & Wenning, 2006).

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to examine the relationship of Math attitude and anxiety of students in computer assisted instruction across Asian countries. Specifically, this study aims to know the following:

1. What is the Math attitude of the learners across Asian countries? 2. What are the levels of Math anxiety of the learners across Asian countries? 3. What are the types of computer assisted instruction in Math across Asian countries? 4. What are the effects of computer assisted instruction in Math attitude of the learners? 5. What are the effects of computer assisted instruction to the levels of Math anxiety of learners?

Significance of the Study

The results of this research study categorically benefited from many sectors of the educational institutions by providing information on the results of the performance in terms of students’ language achievement that will enable the teachers to know the students’ areas of difficulty and strength, thereby guiding them in reconstructing their program of teaching to suit their needs. Among the persons who will be directly or indirectly benefited are the following: To the principal concerned, the results of this research study may give her insights which would encourage her to plan projects designed to improve the quality of language teaching in the public school like Minglanilla National Science High School as the lead school of all public secondary schools in the Municipality of Minglanilla, Cebu Province. The district coordinator in English of the Municipality of Minglanilla as a researcher will benefit from the experimental study for future references. He has been provided with the data and information necessary for his experimental analysis utilizing the macro-skills’ learning performance intended for High School students, particularly in science classes.

This will help the English teachers in Science High School realize in order for them to understand the new approaches in teaching and to be able to use the techniques and procedures effectively. Thus, it is necessary to bring their training up-to-date. They should as well encourage independent thinking and free communication of notions among the students concerned using the tools of expressions acquired in English class because this is the eventual aim of language teaching. To the first year teachers assigned to teach pilot classes as formative years in first year, it may enable them to realize that they should understand evaluation and procedures with emphasis on experimental viewpoints and learning approaches not only them as teachers but also their students so they can integrate with their own teaching and testing. More significantly, they will realize that in fairness to their students, they should test what they really teach.

The secondary freshmen as student entrants of Minglanilla National Science High School will further ameliorate their savvy based on the structured lessons and differ mentally according to the departmentalized lessons, advanced lessons presented, and general learning performance based also on their intellectual aspects of learning. It will enable the students in general to grasp at the innovative teaching-learning approaches shared with them not only by the teachers but also by the freshmen pilot classes in terms of the four (4) areas of English language teaching, namely, listening, speaking, reading and writing as sequenced in the lessons. Finally, the learning institution should initiate and institute a re-training program for the students as the training ground for them to go for the next higher level.


The learning of mathematics is affected by the confidence of learners in their mathematical abilitiesand the attitudes, beliefs, and feelings they harbour towards mathematics (Coben, 2003 as cited by Kerlinger 2004). Their conceptions of the subject and their perceptions of themselves and of their relationship to mathematics lie at the heart of their mathematics learning behaviour (Philippou & Christou, 1998). For fear of embarrassment, many adults go to great lengths to avoid admitting that they experience reading difficulties, yet it appears to be normal, even acceptable, in modern life to readily admit to a dislike and misunderstanding of mathematics. Sewell (1981) suggested that at least half the population, including many with high mathematical qualifications, had negative attitudes to mathematics, ranging from lack of confidence to anxiety and even fear.

According to Bandura’s sociocognitive theory, student’s motivation is a construct that is built out of individual learning activities and experiences, and it varies from one situation or context to another as cited by Pantzaira & Philippou, 2007. Schereiber (2000) said that those who have positive attitudes towards Mathematics have better performance in Mathematics.

Latterell (2008) writes in her book about the “Math Wars” that “Japanese people believe in gambae. Gambae means that one is successful if one works hard enough to be successful. One’s attitude and behavior must match the belief that hard work leads to success” (p. 126). Considering the results of the TIMSS, American students are no competition for Japanese students in mathematics. Japanese and other Asian students consistently outperform American students in mathematics (Latterell, 2008) and innumeracy. “Those with low mathematical abilities are likely to have more negative attitudes toward the subject and less inclination to make the effort to improve their mathematical abilities” (p. 212). Hammerman and Goldberg (2003) also state that to become successful in mathematics requires a positive attitude and belief in one’s ability to succeed.

The factors affecting mathematics anxiety were mathematics achievement, attitude toward mathematics, trait anxiety, and debilitating anxiety.^ Mathematics attitude, mathematics achievement, field indepedence, and the anxiety measures were found to be significant predictors of level of mathematics anxiety. Math anxiety is a real problem facing students, teachers, and parents. Teachers and parents that are afraid of mathematics pass that on to their students and children (Furner & Duffy, 2002). Students who have math anxiety face real and long-lasting consequences. Ashcraft and Kirk (2001) describe the common belief that because of “long-term avoidance of math, and their lesser mastery of the math that couldn’t be avoided, high-math-anxiety individuals are simply less competent at doing math” (p. 224).

Extensive literature demonstrates that anxiety, stress, lack of confidence, and phobic reactions in the face of mathematical problems are exhibited in most modern cultures (Macrae, 2003), and math- anxiety is commonly characterized by feelings of tension, apprehension, or fear that impacts on mathematical performance (Ashcraft, 2002). It is associated with loss of self-esteem in confronting a mathematical situation (Acelajado, 2004), negative reactions to mathematical concepts and evaluation procedures, and with many constructs including working memory, age, gender, self-efficacy, and mathematics attitudes (Cates & Rhymer, 2003).

Students faced with the dual burdens of intractable content and math-anxiety a posteriori tend to have weak or negative mathematics self-efficacy beliefs. Bandura (1986) defined self-efficacy beliefs as “people’s judgements of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances” as cited by Chiu 2009. Self-efficacy beliefs are a better predictor of success than an inventory of skills or prior achievements, and relationships have been found between self-efficacy for solving mathematics problems and mathanxiety, mathematics attitudes, general mental ability, mathematics self-concept, and mathematics experience (Finney & Schraw, 2003).

Yüksel-Şahin (2008) said that Mathematics anxiety has to do with a sense of discomfort while required to work on mathematical problems (Hadfield & Trujillo, 1999; Ma, 2003). Low grades or failure in mathematics could also lead to mathematics anxiety or exasperate students’ existing levels of anxiety for mathematics (Ma & Xu, 2004; Norwood, 1994; Reynolds, 2001; Satake & Amato, 1995; Townsend, Moore, Tuck, & Wilton, 1998). Failure in mathematics, fear and anxiety about it could cause extreme feelings of dislike about mathematics. Indeed, Hopko et.al. (2003) observed that persons with mathematics anxiety make more mistakes in dealing with mathematics problems.

Poor performance in mathematics has been linked to an increase in mathematics anxiety (Furner & Duffy, 2002; Hopko et.al., 2003). Megan R. Smith (2004) said that Math anxiety is a real problem facing students and teachers today. The mathematics teacher especially needs to understand the causes and effects of math anxiety as well as ways to help students overcome it. There are many symptoms of math anxiety including an unwillingness to attempt mathematics problems, a fear of taking advanced mathematics classes, and being unusually nervous when in mathematics class. Math anxiety hinders students’ working memory (Perina, 2002). It occurs at different ages in different people for different reasons. The main cause of math anxiety is the teacher himself It has been shown that students tend to internalize their instructor’s interest in and enthusiasm for teaching math (Jackson and Leffingwell, 1999).

It is imperative when teaching mathematics that the teacher progresses from simple problems to complex ones (Schwartz, 2000). The students also need to have support systems in mathematics, whether this comes from their parents at home or with other students at school (Schwartz, 2000). The greatest prevention of math anxiety is the teacher himself. As stated before, the teacher needs to have a positive attitude when in class and needs to be willing to help students. The teacher must believe in the students even when they do not believe in themselves.

Math anxiety is a real problem facing students, teachers, and parents. Teachers and parents that are afraid of mathematics pass that on to their students and children (Furner & Duffy, 2002). Students who have math anxiety face real and long-lasting consequences. Ashcraft and Kirk (2001) describe the common belief that because of “long-term avoidance of math, and their lesser mastery of the math that couldn’t be avoided, high-math-anxiety individuals are simply less competent at doing math” (p. 224).

Indeed, Hopko et.al. (2003) observed that persons with mathematics anxiety make more mistakes in dealing with mathematics problems. Such mistakes lead to lower grades in mathematics which in turn increases anxiety about math.

Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) is a narrower term and most often refers to drill-and-practice, tutorial, or simulation activities. Computer based tools and applications are used to assist the teacher or school administrator in the management of the learner and instructional process. Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) A self-learning technique, usually offline/online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is an interactive instructional technique whereby a computer is used to present the instructional material and monitor the learning that takes place.

Computer – based instruction is a remediation or instruction presented on a computer according to the American Institute of Research, 2004. Johnson (2000) said that the computer opens a wide range of resources. When correctly used, they give learners a different level of experience and bring new style and height of analysis in the classroom. In the Philippines, the Department of Education is in the final stage of completing the five – year Information and Communication Technology for Education Strategies Plan as Lapus (2008) puts it. Computer – based instruction is a remediation or instruction presented on a computer, the American Institute of Research (2004) reiterated.

CAI is also known as Computer Assisted Instruction. Examples of CAI applications include guided drill and practice exercises, computer visualization of complex objects, and computer-facilitated communication between learners and teachers. CAI can dramatically increase a learner’s access to information. The program can adapt to the abilities and preferences of the individual student and increase the amount of personalized instruction a student receives. Many students benefit from the immediate responsiveness of computer interactions and appreciate the self-paced and private learning environment. Moreover, computer-learning experiences often engage the interest of students motivate them to learn and increase independence and personal responsibility for education (Microsoft Encarta, 2008 as cited by Vibar et. Al, 2010).

As mentioned by Hergenhahn and Olson (1997) Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) motivates students to learn in ways that traditional instruction may not by providing immediate feedback, personal attention, exciting visual displays, and a game-like atmosphere. In fact, students are often so motivated by CAI that depriving them of their turn with the computer acts as punishment, and giving them additional time with the computer that acts as re-enforcement.

Research Methodology

Research Design
This study will employ quantitative approach of data analysis and presentation. It utilizes descriptive correlation method of deriving data from 4 different Asian countries namely: Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and Philippines.

Research Respondents
The respondents of the study will be selected using data mining technique. The 4 Southeast Asian countries including Philippines are among the many that joined the Trends In Mathematics and Science Survey and based on the records, among the Southeast Asian countries, only four joined namely, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and Philippines based on the 2003 TIMSS records.

Research Environment
The research will be conducted within the Four Southeast Asian Countries namely: Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and Philippines.

Research Instrument
For the empirical phase of the study, the researchers will make use of the record sheet based from the Trends In Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS 2003).

Research Procedures
Gathering of Data
Academic performance will be downloaded from Trends In Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS 2003). Through data mining technique, fou different South East Asian countries will be selected based on their performance in Math.

Treatment of Data
The cluster sampling will be utilized to identify the four South East Asian Countries and Pearson r correlation coefficient will help determine the relationship between Math anxiety and Math Attitude.


For a better and clearer understanding of this study, the following terms are operationally defined in the context of this investigation.

Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) refers to the method of teaching that uses computers to interact with students in the teaching-learning process.

Math Anxiety refers to the feeling of tension or fear in Math.

Math Attitude refers to the behavior towards Math

TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE STUDY (TIMSS) international assessment of the mathematics and science knowledge of students from different grade levels across countries.

DATA MINING TECHNIQUE getting information from a data set and makes it
understandable for further use.


Crouch, C. H., & Mazur, E. (2001). Peer Instruction: Ten years of experience and results. American Journal of Physics, 69(9), 970-977. (Peer Instruction and Inquiry)doi:10.1119/1.1374249

Daniels, H. (2007). Pedagogy. In H. Daniels, J. Wertsch, & M. Cole (Eds.), The Cambridge companion to Vygotsky. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Dilber, R., Karaman, I., & Duzgun, B. (2009). High school students’ understanding of projectile motion concepts. Educational Research and Evaluation, 15(3), 203-222.

Ibrahim, B., Buffler, A., & Lubben, F. (2009). Profiles of Freshman Physics Students’ Views on the Nature of Science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(3), 248–264. Mason, A., & Singh, C. (2010). Helping students learn effective problem solving strategies by reflecting with peers. American Journal of Physics, 78(7), 748-754.

Rogoff, B., Moore, L., Najafi, B., Dexter, A., Correa-Chavez, M., & Solis J. (2007). Children’s development of culture repertoires through participation in everyday routines and practices. In J. E. Grusec & P. D. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of socialization. New York: Guilford.

Pachler, Norbert, Center of Excellence for Work-based Learning for Education Professionals, Dept. of learning, Curriculum & Communication, Institute of Education, University of London. 2004.

Using fuzzy statistics to determine Mathematics Attitude and Anxiety, Necla Turanli (2013), Middle East Journal of Scientific Research 13 (4): 568-572, IDOSCI Publications.

Megan R. Smith. (2004). Math Anxiety: Causes, Effects, and Preventative

Internet Sources


Tago et al, Mobile Learning, Challenges and Potentials. www.inderscience.comfilter.php

http://www.edpubs.org. PatrickGonzales (2004). Highlights from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science study (TIMSS) 2003.

[email protected]




1. Supplies:
Drawing book P 46.00 Clear FolderP 16.00

Cost of Services:
a. Print out P 30.00

Total P 76.00

Prepared by:

Curriculum Vitae

Name:Odessa M. Bonjoc – Avenido
Address:Luyang, Carmen, Cebu
Birthday:November 15, 1983
Civil Status:Married
Spouse:Ariel B. Avenido

Elementary: Luyang Elementary School
Year Graduated: 1996
Secondary: Cebu Academy
Year Graduated: 2000
Tertiary: University of the Visayas – Main Campus
Year Graduated: 2004
Course: Bachelor in Elementary Education – Area in Mathematics Graduate Studies: Cebu Normal University
Graduated: Present
Course: Master of Arts in Education – Major in ELT

Employment Record:
Position: Teacher 2
Designation:ICT Teacher
School: Luyang Elementary School – DepEd Province

Name: Armestides M. Bargayo VI
Address: Lower Pakigne, Minglanilla, Cebu
Birthday: October 22, 1981
Civil Status: Single
Sex: Male
Age: 31 years old

Elementary: Minglanilla Central School
Year Graduated: 1994
High School: Immaculate Heart of Mary Academy
Year Graduated: 1998
College: University of San Carlos
Year Graduated: 2002
Course: Bachelor in Secondary Education major in Math
Graduate Studies: Cebu Normal University
Year Graduated: Present
Course: Master of Arts in Education major in Math

Employment Record:
Position: Math Teacher
School: University of Cebu – Main Campus

Name: Jun Antoinette Z. Navaja
Address: 4- E Gorordo Avenue, Kamputhaw,
Cebu City
Birthday: January 27, 1988
Civil Status: Single
Sex: Female
Age: 25 years old

Elementary: Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepcion
Year Graduated: 2001
High School: Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepcion
Year Graduated: 2005
College: University of San Carlos
Year Graduated: 2009
Course: Bachelor of Education major in Special Education
Graduate Studies: Cebu Normal University
Year Graduated: Present
Course: Master of Arts in Education major Special Education- Mental

Employment Record:
Position: Substitute Teacher
School: Barrio Luz Elementary School, DepEd Cebu

Name: Angelie Lopez Senarosa
Address: Catmaran, Basak, Compostela, Cebu
Birthday: April 25, 1982
Civil Status:Single
Sex: Female
Age: 31 years old

Elementary: Panangban Elementary School
Year Graduated: 2000
High School: Compostela National High School
Year Graduated: 2003
College: Cebu Normal University
Year Graduated: 2007
Course: Bachelor in Secondary Education major in Math
Graduate Studies: Cebu Normal University
Year Graduated: Present
Course: Master of Arts in Education major in Math

Employment Record:
Position: Math Teacher
School: Mulao National High School, DepEd Cebu

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