Smoking is associaated with an increased overall mortality. It was recognized early in the area of indutrilized cigaratte production and mass use. Smokers will often says that they are not addicted to cigarrate. They thinl of smoking habit , which they can control and contai and would be able to stop at any time. The definition of smoking is the way , the act of smoking tobacco or other subtances. According to history of smokers , tobacco or scientifically call necotine is a herbal plant .The herbal plant is about 1.8 meters high . it has big leaf about 30 centimeters . The reason why , smoking is addictive becouse of it contain nicotine , a subtances that given to monkeys ,rats, dogs will precipitate chemical dependency .
Cigarrattes firsts produced by Julep Cigarattes , and marketed by the Julep Cigarattes Company of Boston and Hahira about 1935 , then later by Pen Tobacco Company and finally atound !958 By Brown and Williamson . A commercial cigarattes manufacturing plant was built in Harira, Georgia in 1962 . When the factory first opened , it manufactured ‘’ Osteen ‘’ cigarattes until the depression hit in 1929. After the few years , the factory closed and all cigarattes making equipment was removed .
Smoking accounts for one out of every five death in Malaysia . It is the most important modifiable cause of premature death , responsible annually for an estimated 120 000 years of potential life lost. About 10 000 Malaysians die each year becouse of smoking ( Tobacca 2003 ). According to the World Health Organization ( WHO ) , there are about4.9 millions tobacco related deaths each year . This fegure makes tobacco use the leading cause of preentable death in the world . From 4.9 millions tobacco relateds death , 1.1 millions accur in the south east asia region , which is the largest producer of tobacco and tobacco products .
The biggest increase in desease are in India . In the western Pacific Region, 62 percent of men and six percent of women smoking , leaving hte majority of non smokers exposed to second hand smoke ( WHO/WPRO , 2004 ) . The biggest Increse in tobacco related disease are expected in China , where an estimated two to three millions death will accur by 2020 ( WHO/WPRO , 2004 ). The Easten Madeteranian Region ( EMRO ) is not far from the current trends in China . Egypt has a rise in all tobacco related cancer including lung cancer which contributes over 90 percent of all death .
Cigarretes smoking is a risk factor for stroke death . It is well known that cegirattes smoking is associated with an incresed risk of cardiovascular disease . manyepidemiological studies in Western populitions have identified smoking as an independent risk factor for stroke and this association has olso been found . However , epidemiological data regarding the relationship between smoking and stroke in Japanese people living in Japan remain inconclusive . In contrast , however , tobacco consumption in recent years been rising in developing contries including Malaysia . The prevalance of smoking among Malaysians adult aged 15 years and above had increased from 21 percent in 1985 to 31 percent in 2000 .Some 49 percent are all adult males and 5 percent of all adult females are now current smokers .
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
People are becoming much more sensetive to the smoking issues . In Malaysia , these are about 5 million smokers consuming an average of 14 cigarattes per day ( tobacco 2003 ) . Unfortunately , the number of hte smokers is too large. It will triple the next three decades from 10 000 million in 1998 to 30 000 millions by the year 2030. As long as smoking is seriously dificult habit to beak , very few smokers are able to succeed in their attemts to quit . Various contries have proven that healthcare proffesionals can play an active role in helping smokers to break free of their tobacco addiction through a properly arganized smoking cessation proframs. Otherwise , smoking also will affects the non smokers person who bestfirend with them .
The porpose of this study is to understand smoking habit of UNISEL ( University Selangor ) . This study will help the decision maker to make decision about smoking arounf the campus . the goeverment is undertaking serious ( anti-smoking campaign ) arounf Malaysia but the result is discouraging . This shows not everybody is concerned about their healthy lifestyle . The statistics revealed that about eight percent of the estimated 4.6 millions smokers in Malaysia were students . It is about 50 to 60 teenagers started smoking a day . According to article Jasudason 2005 , the goverment had allocated RM20 millions a year for the next year for the next ten years for the anti smoking campaigns to prove its commitment the curbs the smoking habits among Malaysians .
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
This research is all about why the cigarette smoking is popular among the teenagers. The reseacher is aware that smoking is a major preventable cause of premature death . It does not only threaten young people’s currrent and future health but olso over the world a face the same problem nothing can change their perception . The objective of the research are :-
1. To find out why students involved in smoking at young age.
2. To understand what student think of smoking.
3. To know percentage of student who are involved in cigarattes smoking.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
An important reason for carry out this study is to provide an understanding on the impact of smoking . The significance of this research is to show how, why student are involved in smoking . This study will provide usefull information for policy makers of the university for taking steps to reduce incidents of smoing in campus. This olso will by understanding the habits , more effective anti smoking campaign should be planned and launched effectively .
Besides , this analysis will provide usefull information that will help to overcome smoking habits in UNISEL student
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study limited to the survey of students in the Diploma Business Management under Faculty Of Business in UNISEL only . This is because of financial limitation and time contraints.
1.6 THE TIMESCLASE OF THE RESEARCH
Community surveys of the areas
Design the questionnaires- Collection of official and unofficial statistic 1/11/14
1st session participant observation of the area
Interview the smokers
2st session participant observation of the area
Analysis of the data obtained from the field work
Write the thesis
1.7 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. What is the percentage of student In Diploma Business Management in UNISEL Shah Alam who smoker?
The percentage of students who smokers is %.
2. What is the ratio of smoker between male and female student?
The ratio of the smoker between male and female students is ??? and out of respondents.
3. What is the average number and cigarette that student smoke?
According to table 1.1 shows the average number of student smoker per day is between 5 – 15 sticks
How many cigarettes do you smoke per day
Less than 5 sticks
5 – 10 sticks
10 – 15 sticks
15 – 20 sticks
More than 20 sticks
Are you smoker
% of Total
4. The amount of money spends on smoking every month.
The amount of money they have spend on smoking cigarettes every month is RM ??? for each person. Referring to the spending money of the week, the respondents usually spend about less than RM ???.
5. Of those smoke, what is the percentage of student who tried to stop smoking? The percentage of students who tried to stop smoking is about ???% of them.
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
The process of developing the competencies began with a literature review of other smoking cessation workforce competencies. The review question was What documents are available that will help in the development of the core competencies required for people providing evidence-based treatment of tobacco dependence in New Zealand? The international cessation competencies accepted by the Association for the Treatment of Tobacco Use and Dependence (ATTUD) 9 in April 2005 were used as the starting point, with more recent and more specific literature then investigated to ensure competencies were measurable and relevant to New Zealand. A variety of databases were searched for this review, using the following search terms: “smoking cessation”, “workforce competency”, “clinical competence”, “professional competence”, “competency- based education”, and “competency”. The databases included: Medline, Embase, Cinahl, AMED, PsycINFO, PubMed, EBM Reviews – Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EBM Reviews – Database of Abstracts for Reviews of Effectiveness, EBM Reviews – ASP Journal Club, EBM Reviews – Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.
A variety of other sources were searched for information, including the reference lists of all obtained articles, key websites, and by asking key informants for relevant documents. All studies that focussed on smoking cessation competencies were sought, irrespective of study design, type of participants, sample size, or outcome measures. Only English language publications were sought. The search was restricted to literature published from 2005 onwards, that is, after the international cessation competencies developed by ATTUD were approved. The final literature search was completed on 7 March 2007. A narrative review of the literature was undertaken. Competency development—A project team from the University of Auckland’s School of Population Health developed a draft set of smoking cessation competencies based on information obtained from:
The 2007 New Zealand Smoking Cessation Guidelines;10
Consultation with an expert group comprising 14 people from throughout New Zealand selected for their expertise in cessation service provision and/or training. Page 49 URL: http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/121-1276/3114/
RESEARCH OF METHODOLOGY
The research employs quantitative research methods in conducting the study. In data collection , formal questionaires are prepared and the question are asked in a arranged order.
3.2 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
The research intrument of this study is questionares . the survey instruments measures the level of impact in smoking habit whether is good for health or not good for health for the young age .
3.3 DATA COLLECTION
The research used thesurvey instruments to collect data research data . The research focuses on the opinion , when , why , how they involved in smoking cigarrates . The data collection selected randomly in Faculty of Business of Diploma Business Management .
This information will be gathered in the following ways.
Semi-structured interview technique
Existing framework from previous research
Gather detailed general information including: age & gender
Taken before observations.
After all data have been gathered and collected , it must be analyzed. This process is called data analysis. As mentioned , 120 questionaires will be sent to respondent consist of 55 males and 65 females .
4.2 FREQUENCY ANALYSIS
The analysis is based on the questionaires analysis is given to the respondents . The information in this part is divided in three parts as part A , Part B , part C
1. PART A : THE RESPONDENTS
According to the study , there are eight question on students background
2. PART B : ABOUT HTE SMOKER
This section shows the analysis of smoker who is involved in the cigarrates smoking and how much they spend in buying the cigarrates per week .
3. PART C : NON SMOKERS
This section is mainly for the non smokers olso for a smoker who has stopped smoking and how they are motivated to keep away from smoking.