Renaissance (Italian: Rinascimento, French. Renaissanse = Rebirth) – the common name for the era, to follow in the history of Western art for Gothic and lasted from the middle of the fifteenth to the early sixteenth century. Most importantly, what characterized this era, a return to the principles and architecture of ancient forms, mainly Roman art, and painting and sculpture, in addition – the convergence of art with nature, the closest scrutiny to the laws of their anatomy, perspective, action of light and other natural phenomena.
Movement in this direction came first in Italy, where it is firmly established in the 20s fifteenth century. In France, Germany and other countries, this movement started much later , Despite this, its properties, and the course of development, especially in regard to architecture were all almost identical. Features and periodization of the English Renaissance. In the XVI century, despite all the political turmoil and military failures, the economic development of England quickly moved forward, has caused grave social restructuring and increased the value of the classes that were then the support of royal absolutism.
In the XVI century, England experienced a complete revolution in all areas of economic and social life, turning it from a feudal country to classical. At this time in England and has an extraordinary flowering in all areas of thought and creativity. Revival in England, capturing more than a century time period has passed several stages in its development. 1). His early period coincided with the Reformation, though the people who had deep roots, but the accomplished here “from above” by government decree of Henry VIII (1534). This defined the important features of English humanism.
First of all, the issues of religion and church life for all of the early English humanists played incomparably more important than for the Italian humanists. 2). In the second period of the English Renaissance situation has changed. Reformation of Henry VIII facilitate subsequent generations of English humanists struggle for secular culture against the culture of the church, with the cheerful outlook against the medieval monastic asceticism, for the liberation of the mind from the religious scholasticism. Significant importance was also the fact that in erms of pan-European Renaissance in England was late historical phenomenon. Thanks to this British humanists could use the ideological heritage of the humanists in other countries. 3). The greatest flowering of the Renaissance ideas have in England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth (1558 – 1603), who was at the same time sometimes remarkable rise of colonial and commercial power of the country. During this period, the bourgeoisie and Protestant England defeat the feudal Catholic monarchy of Spain, becomes a major maritime power, sending its merchant ships to all countries and strengthens ties with all the countries of Europe.
England greedily absorbs all the wealth of the European humanist culture. The unusually wide development is fiction. Blooming brilliant group of lyric poets, other poets create an epic poem. Rapidly evolving English novel: Knight, pastoral, adventurous and really-home, there is a rich drama with Shakespeare at the helm. Extraordinary in all areas of thought and creativity, which is going through England in the second half of the XVI century, is, however, relatively short-lived. English humanists have witnessed profound changes in the socio-economic life.
Their main enemy was in the end not the old feudal world is already moving away in England in the past, but a new society based on capitalist property and profit, and they are extremely sharp and painful reaction to all generated by this ugly desire life. It is this trait proved particularly stable and characteristic of humanist culture in the classic land of primitive accumulation. In any case, this feature clearly emerges from the two leading figures of the English Renaissance, standing alone in the beginning, the other at the end of this era – at Thomas More and Shakespeare.
Thomas More – the founder of Utopia in the literature. “Utopia” – a word invented by Moore, it is made up of the Greek words and means “things that are not unheard of place. ” According to the courage of thought, clarity on the solution of their problems – to show a concrete example of how society can be organized on the basis of equality without private property, – “Utopia” is an exceptional place in the world literature. The development of English drama before Shakespeare. During the Renaissance in England particular flourished dramatic literature, s closely related to the development in this time of theatrical performances and performing arts. Having experienced the impact of both antique and classic-humanist drama in Europe (especially Italy), English drama nonetheless maintained its national character, growing directly out of the dramatic genres of the Middle Ages – morality and interludes. Even in the period of maximum lift English theater still retained many of the features tightly linked the theater of the medieval city.
Throughout the first half of the XVI century in the English theater was a struggle of different elements, and those introduced her. The extraordinary rise of dramatic activity in the second half XVI and early XVII centuries. At this time in London there is a lot of paid public theaters have special buildings and permanent professional troupes. Grows interest in theatrical skill. For many of these theaters is working with prominent playwrights Shakespeare at the helm. In the first half of the XVI century, especially popular in England morality and interludes.
Morality (“moral action”) is a particularly convenient form for the promotion of new, humanist ideas, so at first they most often use the humanists to discuss a variety of aesthetic, religious and political issues. Allegory and edification – the main features of this genre. Bringing to the stage impersonation of virtues and vices, morality creating common types of characters, but gradually exposed to these types of individualization. An example is the work of John Bailey. Bayle wrote plays on biblical subjects and the morality of the theological content.
Another common in the first half of the XVI century view of theatrical performances were in England interlude. So named here not only plays the comic content, but all sorts of other comic plays involving multiple actors. In the end interludes in England became known as small comic little pieces, the closest in type approach to the French farce. Interludes of this kind have led to the development of English domestic comedy. With the development of humanism, the influence of samples of ancient drama. Student performances in Latin in English universities were held from the end of the XV century.
In the first half of the XVI century, interest in the “school drama” increased, and it is increasingly began to use vernacular instead of Latin, so that could have some effect on people’s drama. In the 60 years of the XVI century. England comedy appears for many different types. Some of them are imitations of the antique, the other – the Italian comedies, in turn, are often based on ancient samples. There is also a Renaissance tragedy, the model for which, as in other countries, were the main tragedy of Seneca. It is much more intense drama evolved from the 70 years of the XVI century.
This period saw major changes on-stage and technical organization of theatrical performances in London. Until that time, there existed a court theater. It was designed to elect an aristocratic audience, grouped around the royal family and outsiders were allowed here only on special invitation. The urban population of the capital was to be content with occasional views of random groups of itinerant actors of theater professionals to flock to London. In the third quarter of the XVI century, citizens’ interest in theatrical shows of this kind has grown so that there is a need to create a specially built for him a building.
These theaters are really having a 70’s and since then has continually increased in number. In the XVI century the city theaters in London existed in two flavors: public and private, however, the distinction between them is gradually smoothed out. Private and public theaters differed from each other mainly in the composition of the audience and features theater groups. Private originally catered to special invitees, then they differed by more expensive places and accordingly had a more affluent visitors.
There were mainly “children’s troupe. ” Public theaters differed cheapness of admission and were counting on a diverse and motley crowd of spectators, they were not in the central part of the city, and for its feature on the north or south bank of the Thames. In public theaters played exceptionally professional “adults” acting troupe, and their scenic area is a sophisticated device. London theaters of the time, both public and private, have a special device that is significantly different from their present.
Theatre building, built, apparently, of the wood, then had a round or oval shape, the shape of polyhedra. Reinforce the illusion of stage effects are performed by some of the technical tools, and produces backstage onomatopoeia (thunder, barking dogs, crowing of the cock, etc. ), the music that accompanied the show, and especially expressive acting. Played a significant role in this regard and the most scenic text, contains a description of the place where the action occurs, such as the beauty of the surrounding nature, or references to the time when the action takes place.
Thanks to the combination of all these methods could achieve a variety of illusions, such as the dark, although the performance was in daylight. The director, however, has provided the most help in this regard, the theater audience, vividly and emotionally react to the idea, who had excitable imagination. The diversity, the mixed composition of the theater audience in public theaters also provide them a very significant feature.
Public theaters visited and well-off citizens, and the aristocracy were located in the lower tiers of boxes galleries, and sometimes on the very front of the stage, the upper gallery and stalls filled with a more democratic public – anyone who could pay for the very small amount of input. Popular theater in all classes of society should be to explain the variety and diversity of the repertoire created for him. The repertoire of this was created by a group of prominent playwrights, which are the immediate precursors of Shakespeare.
Courtney from Study Moose
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