According to Harrison (2005), in the field of human resource management, training and development is the field concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. It has been known by several names, including employee development, human resource development, and learning and development.
According to Robbins and DeCenzo (2000), training has traditionally been defined as the process by which individuals change their skills, knowledge, attitudes, and/or behavior. In this context, training involves designing and supporting learning activities that result in a desired level of performance. In contrast, development typically refers to long-term growth and learning, directing attention more on what an individual may need to know or do at some future time. While training focuses more on current job duties or responsibilities, development points to future job responsibilities. However, sometimes these terms have been used interchangeably or have been denoted by the single term performance consulting, which emphasizes either the product of training and development or how individuals perform as a result of what they have learned.
Training is an educational process. People can learn new information, re-learn and reinforce existing knowledge and skills, and most importantly have time to think and consider what new options can help them improve their effectiveness and performance at work. Effective trainings convey relevant
and useful information that inform employees and develop skills and behaviors that can be transferred back to the workplace Robinson and Robinson (1999).
The goal of training is to create an impact that lasts beyond the end time of the training itself. The focus is on creating specific action steps and commitments that focus people’s attention on incorporating their new skills and ideas back at work. Training can be offered as skill development for individuals and groups. In general, trainings involve presentation and learning of content as a means for enhancing skill development and improving workplace behaviors. These two processes, Training and Development, are often closely connected. Training can be used as a proactive means for developing skills and expertise to prevent problems from arising and can also be an effective tool in addressing any skills or performance gaps among staff. Development can be used to create solutions to workplace issues, before they become a concern or after they become identifiable problem. Development perspective examines the current environment, the present state, and helps people on a team, in a department and as part of an institution identify effective strategies for improving performance. In some situations, there may not be anything “wrong” at the present time; the group or manager may simply be seeking ways to continue to develop and enhance existing relationships and job performance. In other situations, there may be an identifiable issue or problem that needs to be addressed; the Development process aims to find ideas and solutions that can effectively return the group to a state of high performance. Development implies creating and sustaining change. Training and development describes the formal, ongoing efforts that are made within organizations to improve the performance and self-fulfillment of their employees through a variety of educational methods and programmed. In the modern workplace, these efforts have taken on a broad range of applications—from instruction in highly specific job skills to long-term professional development. In recent years, training and development has emerged as a formal business function, an integral element of strategy, and a recognized profession with distinct theories and methodologies. More and more companies of all sizes have embraced “continual learning” and other aspects of training and development is a process that
“strives to build the capacity to achieve and sustain a new desired state that benefits the organization or community and the world around them”. Development perspective examines the current environment, the present state, and helps people on a team, in a department and as part of an institution identify effective strategies for improving performance. In some situations, there may not be anything “wrong” at the present time; the group or manager may simply be seeking ways to continue to develop and enhance existing relationships and job performance. In other situations, there may be an identifiable issue or problem that needs to be addressed; the Development process aims to find ideas and solutions that can effectively return the group to a state of high performance. Development implies creating and sustaining change Charnov, Garavan, Costine, and Heraty (2000). According to Marmer (1999), training and development describes the formal, ongoing efforts that are made within organizations to improve the performance and self-fulfillment of their employees through a variety of educational methods and programmed. In the modern workplace, these efforts have taken on a broad range of applications—from instruction in highly specific job skills to long-term professional development. In recent years, training and development has emerged as a formal business function, an integral element of strategy, and a recognized profession with distinct theories and methodologies. More and more companies of all sizes have embraced “continual learning” and other aspects of training and development as a means of promoting employee growth and acquiring a highly skilled work force. In fact, the quality of employees and the continual improvement of their skills and productivity through training are now widely recognized as vital factors in ensuring the long-term success and profitability of small businesses and in addition create a corporate culture that supports continual learning. For the most part, the terms “training” and “development” are used together to describe the overall improvement and education of an organization’s employees. However, while closely related, there are important differences between the terms that center on the scope of the application. In general, training programmed have very specific and quantifiable goals, like operating a particular piece of machinery, understanding a specific process, or performing certain procedures with great precision.
According Ambler (2006), effective training and development begins with the overall strategy and objectives of the small business. The entire training process should be planned in advance with specific company goals in mind. In developing a training strategy, it may be helpful to assess the company’s customers and competitors, strengths and weaknesses, and any relevant industry or societal trends. The next step is to use this information to identify where training is needed by the organization as a whole or by individual employees. It may also be helpful to conduct an internal audit to find general areas that might benefit from training, or to complete a skills inventory to determine the types of skills employees possess and the types they may need in the future. Each different job within the company should be broken down on a task-by-task basis in order to help determine the content of the training program. According to Schwartz (2000), in measuring the effectiveness of training, researchers have typically relied upon the subjective reactions of participants (Baker & Titus, 1982; Heppner & Reeder, 1984; Pfaff, 1981; Pritchett, Clay, & Nichols, 1984; Twale & Muse, 1996; Upcraft & Pilato, 1982). Other measures that have been used previously include the performance of task activities within the context of training programmed (Baker & Titus, 1982; Forney, 1986) and follow-up questionnaires designed to assess trainees’ subsequent emotional states (Winston & Buckner, 1984) or their ability to apply programmed content to hypothetical situations similar to those encountered on the job (Schuh, Stage, & Westfall, 1991). With the exception of one study by up craft and Pilato (1982), in which ratings of job performance were used as a criterion, there appears to have been little or no published research dealing with the effects of training on actual job performance. Importance of Training and Development on Job Performance Training is one element many corporations consider when looking to advance people and offer promotions. Although many employees recognize the high value those in management place on training and development, some employees are still reluctant to be trained. Training and development offers more than just increased knowledge. It offers the added advantage of networking and drawing from others’ experiences therefore it is not uncommon to hear excuses regarding why someone has not received training. (Choo 2007)
According to Bowley (2007), training in an organization can be mainly of two types; Internal and External training sessions. Internal training occurs when training is organized in-house by the Human resources department or training department using either a senior staff or any talented staff in the particular department as a resource person. On the other hand, External training is normally arranged outside the firm and is mostly organized by training institutes or consultants. Whichever training, it is very essential for all staff and helps in building career positioning and preparing staff for greater challenges. While the applications of training and development are as various as the functions and skills required by an organization, several common training applications can be distinguished, including technical training, sales training, clerical training, computer training, communications training, organizational development, career development, supervisory development and management development.
According to Mondy, R.W. and Adeniyi, (1995), is of the opinion that for every employee to perform well, there is the need for constant training and development. The right employee training, development and education provide big payoffs for the employer in increased productivity, knowledge, loyalty, and contribution to general growth of the firm. The reasons behind employee training and development cannot be overemphasized.
According to Roberto G. Medina, training is regarded as an attempt to improve the employee’s ability to perform his job so the goals of the organization can be achieved. The person mainly responsible for training is the supervisor who is assisted in some ways by the personnel manager or the training director. The supervisor of the new employee is the best position to provide training. This is so because he knows what output his unit needs. In addition, the supervisor has the abilities, the skills, and the right attitude needed to be imparted to the new employee.
According to Jose P. Leveriza, training starts before the employee walks through the door of the place of work for the first time. However, learning
about the employer starts with the job advertisement and continues through the selection process. As a result ‘training’ in its widest sense could be deemed to have begun, albeit subliminally, several weeks, or even months, before a new employee is added to the payroll. It is important at this stage to make a clear delineation between training or development as a result of some initiative taken at work, and education that is undertaken before and is mutually exclusive to the work situation. Education at school, college or university may be undertaken as part of an individual’s development programme, but for the process of this discussion, achievements in these areas outside and prior to employment will be regarded as qualifications required to gain employment, and thus not within the employer’s control.
According to Florence M. de Guia, training is ‘a planned process to modify attitude, knowledge or skill behavior through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. Its purpose, in the work situation, is to develop the abilities of the individual and to satisfy the current and future needs of the organization’. This is a wide-ranging remit, but the confusion with the education which has a more abstract, formal and lengthier connotation must be established at the outset.
The study conducted by Joseph Kennedy (2009) “The Impact of Training and Development to Job Performance”. The Judicial Service of Ghana as a Public Service Institution is the organ responsible for the day to day administration of the Courts and Tribunals of the land. To achieve the above function of the Judicial Service of Ghana, part of its budgetary allocation has been earmarked solely for training of judges, magistrates and judicial staff to enhance their capacity to perform their duties effectively and efficiently so as to achieve the vision and mission statements of the Service. To this effect, the judicial training institute which has the mandate to promote effective training of judges, magistrates and judicial staff, has over the years conducted and continue to provide training to judges, magistrates and judicial staff to build their capacity to perform
their functions effectively. Notwithstanding the huge investment in training by the Judicial Service of Ghana, the service is confronted with a lot of challenges in achieving its vision and mission statements. These challenges include delays in the processing of court cases and the need to constantly upgrade the skills of judicial staff, judges and magistrates to cope with new trends in efficient justice delivery. This study seeks to evaluate the impact of the huge investment made in training on job performance of judicial staff. The researcher used both primary and secondary sources of for the conduct the research. The research findings revealed that the training conducted by the Judicial Service of Ghana for its employees was very negligible. The research further recommends that the frequency of Training provided by the Judicial Service of Ghana should be improved to ensure that more employees have access to Training and Development. Again, Training and Development offered by the Judicial Service of Ghana should ensure a better understanding of the Mission and Vision statement of the Judicial Service of Ghana so that, employees can identify themselves with the organizational values in the discharge of the duties.
The study conducted by Ayesha Mirza (2010) “HR Process and Impact of Training and Development on Employee’s Performance at PSO” This project discusses research that was undertaken about the HR process and impact of training and development on employee’s performance at Pakistan State Oil. I have studied all the HR practices of the company but the main focus was to study the impact of training and development on employee’s performance in the company. A theoretical framework is developed from a literature search and this issued by me as a model for further research. I have collected data within this framework and analyzed it according to the requirements of the project. To collect the data required I have also visited regional office of PSO in Karachi and also collected data from several outlets of PSO. The web site of PSO is also used as source of data by the group. At PSO, they strongly believe that Human Resource is the asset that should be appreciated with the passage of time. Consequently, PSO considers the strong focus on training and development of their employees a value added and worthwhile investment. Then, in the last by the detailed study of the impact of training and development practices used by the company some
recommendations are made and on the basis of the analysis of company’s practices conclusions are drawn.
This chapter deals with the methodology to be applied in. It covered the research design, respondents of the study, research instruments, and procedure in gathering the data, determined of sampling technique, and the statistical treatment.
The researchers will use the descriptive design to find out and make a comparison of training and development and job performance of the newly hired employees of Card Mutually Reinforcing Institute and to determine the levels of training and development. The correlation design will also use to determine if there is a significant relationship between training and development and job performance.
Population and Distribution of the Study
The populations of the study are the newly hired employees of Card Mutually Reinforcing Institute in San Pablo City. The researcher selected fifty (50) newly hired employees in the said company by administering a self-made test questionnaires. The respondents randomly selected by the researchers by dividing them into two (2) batch , which consist of twenty five (25) member per batch by giving them thirty minutes allotted time to answer the provided questions given by the researchers. Research Instruments
The researcher prepare self made test to measure the effectiveness of training and development to the job performance of the newly hired employees. The constructed test includes the profile factors such as age, gender and socio-economic status.
Self- made Tests. These are the 15 item questionnaires made by the researcher
which were use to measure the effectiveness of training and development to the job performance of the respondents. The questionnaires generally consist of general information and evaluation to test the effectiveness of training and development to the job performance of the employees. The questionnaires were then validated by the experts of the field.
In order to get the necessary materials needed for the review of related literature and studies, the researchers visited different libraries namely San Pablo Colleges, City Library, University of the Philippines Los Banos and Colegio De San Juan De Letran. The researchers’ visit and surf different websites to gather more information and data to have a better understanding of the studies. The researchers made test questionnaires to determine the effectiveness of training and development to the job performance of the newly hired employees. The fifty (50) respondents of Card Mutually Reinforcing Institute divided into two batches for not to interrupt the workplace of the respondents.
For gathering the data of the study, the researchers ask for their consent before making them as the respondent of the study. Also the researchers ask the respondents to answer the questionnaires with all their honest and sincerity.
After the respondents have finish answering the questionnaires, the researchers will collect and sort it out and tabulate the scores then analyze and interpret it.