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Reinforcement Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Positive Reinforcement for Children

From a very early age, children begin to learn about the association between behaviors and consequences. They realize that there is always going to be a consequence whether it’d be positive or negative, that would follow the behavior. Sometimes children behave very well and most of the time, children tend to give parents and others around them a hard time. When it comes to behavior modification, some basic steps include identifying the behavior, setting expectations, monitoring progress, and reinforcing correct behaviors. Positive reinforcement has a lot of effect on children when it comes to modifying a targeted behavior. A reinforcer, which can be either positive or negative, is defined as an event, stimulus, or condition that, when presented immediately following…

Operant Conditioning Paper

The theory of operant conditioning was thought of by B.F. Skinner. Skinner came up with this theory based on the work of Thorndike (1905). The theory of operant conditioning states that organisms learn to act or behave in a way which obtains or gets a reward yet avoids a punishment. It is an instrumental type of conditioning. Type R conditioning is also known as operant conditioning. Type R conditioning is shown by the response rate. Type S conditioning is determined by the amount of the conditioned response. Skinners R conditioning is similar to Thorndike’s instrumental conditioning, and Skinners S conditioning is very similar to Pavlov’s classical conditioning (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009). The focus in operant conditioning is on a behavior…

What is a Token Economy?

Since the beginning of human history there has been some form of token economy in place. From the use of giving food to giving coins or currency to those who perform a task for someone. Money is the most common current form of a token economy used in everyday life. Individuals get paid in money for completing a project or simple tasks by someone else. People are taught at a very early age how to earn money or rewards. According to Rodriguez, Montesinos, & Preciado (2005), the first therapeutic use of a token economy has been credited to Avendano y Carderera in 1859. Carderera stated that a token could be used to reward the good behavior of children (Rodriguez, Montesinos,…

Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning is a form of basic learning the body automatically responds to a stimulus. One stimulus takes on the properties of another. The Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) is credited for discovering the basic principles of classical conditioning whilst he was studying digestion in dogs. He developed a technique for collecting dog’s salivary secretions. Pavlov (cited in Eysneck M.W 2009) noticed that the dogs would often start salivating before they were given any food or saw the feeding bucket or even when they heard the footstep of the laboratory assistant coming to feed them. Quite by accident Pavlov had discovered that the environmental control of behaviour can be changed as a result of two stimuli becoming associated with each…

Effect of Reinforcement

Psychology as we know it didn’t suddenly appear on the intellectual scene. It is impossible to say just when it began, or who was responsible for it. Instead, we can only point to a number of current that takes us from philosophy and the natural sciences into something recognizably psychological. To give you the simple concept of this field, psychology is the study of human and animal behavior. As time ages, many psychological theories have evolved. Burhus Frederic Skinner, as one of the contributors has emphasized a theory on learning regarding to individual’s behavior. Skinner believed that the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences. He called this approach operant…

What Is Behaviour Modification

Behavior modification is a therapeutic technique based on the work of B.F. Skinner, a famous psychologist who is known as the “Father of Behaviorism.” Skinner developed a theory of operant conditioning, which states that all behavior is governed by reinforcing and punishing stimuli. Behavior modification uses a scheduled approach that rewards desired behavior and “punishes” undesirable behavior. This technique continues to be used in therapy and is used in many psychological settings. Principles Reinforcement and punishment are the main principles of behavior modification. Reinforcement strengthens a behavior, while punishment weakens a behavior. Both can be either positive or negative. Positive reinforcement describes desirable behavior rewarded with a pleasant stimulus, while negative reinforcement describes desirable behavior rewarded with the removal of…

Adolescent Truancy

I choose to do my paper on “Playing Hooky”: Examining Factors that Contribute to Adolescent Truancy, because of the position I am currently in at work places me in several different school s all year long. I have seen the effects and causes of adolescent truancy first hand. This article is a review of previous data that was obtained from Youth Advocate Programs, Inc. This article clearly states that it is a research article, and the research is from a study that compiled data from 20 students. The researchers looked at all variables that play a factor in adolescent truancy, to include family environment, living situations, community involvement, severity of substance use, duration of substance use, and peer victimization. Based…

Positive Behavior

Reinforcement is a consequence following a behavior that could increase the probability of the behavior (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007). Reinforcement helps the behavior to be strong enough that it can occur naturally within its one’s environment or can be a part of an intervention plan that teaches new behaviors (Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayor, 1991). Reinforcement is an important concept in operant conditioning and an important part of learning process. B. F. Skinner accepted this technique to modify reinforcement and punishment as well as extinction reinforcement. It increases a negative behavior, or a positive behavior. In Operant Learning, there are two types of behaviors positive and negative. Reinforcement is something that is part of everyone’s life and rewards are given to…

Reinforcement Theory

Q# 1: Identify the practices of organization that are indicating the application of reinforcement theory? Answer 1. Focus on proper training before giving task to the employees 2. Monitoring the performance of employees. 3. Formulation of procedures, rules and regulations in detail. 4. Strictness in compliance of rules. Q# 2: You are required to suggest some measures of positive reinforcement that can be implemented by the management of Crisp & Soft restaurant. Answer 1. The manager can start a practice to greet the employees and having pleasant conversation with those who came on time at start of day and conduct a small meeting with staff at closing of day and praised and say thanks those who performed good during the…

Hovey & Beard Company Case

1. Discuss how the principles of job design and reinforcement theory apply to the performance problems at the Hovey and Beard Company. Principals of Job design exhibited at the Hovey and Beard Company, a production company who made toys. Toy painters were experiencing the following problems: New painters learned at a slower pace (making the other painters lose money on rewards per piece) the assembly line hooks moved too fast, painters blamed management. Incentive pay wasn’t adequate for workers and it was too hot working so close to the drying ovens. One painter, who worked with the company the longest, was appointed by other painters to address their concerns with the supervisor. Supervisor listened and worked closely with painters to…

Philosophies of Education

There are many different educational philosophies that have developed over the years. Some of these philosophies are teacher-centered and some are student-centered, but they all have the same goal, and the goal is to provide students with the best education possible. The following is a list of educational philosophies and their basic ideas. 1. Perennialism- is a teacher centered philosophy that focuses on the values associated with reason. It considers knowledge as enduring, seeks everlasting truths, and views principles of existence as constant or unchanging. For Perennialists, the aim of education is to ensure that students acquire understandings about the great ideas of Western civilization. These ideas have the potential for solving problems in any era. The focus is to…

Safeway Supermarket

Safeway Company has policies that require employees to smile at and make eye contacts with customers. Most of the customers would view this kind of facial gestures as a friendly way of doing business, but some customers might misunderstand them as a “flirt”. Twelve employees had filed complaints about this “Superior Service” policy and found it unethical for the company to have undercover shoppers to spot if there is any violator. This led to Union to get involved and suggest the company to modify the policy. However, the headquarters disagreed that the policy was the cause of the misunderstanding. And they think it is necessary to train their employees to be friendly and having the right attitude to serve their…

Conditioning Procedures in Shaping Children’s Behaviour

A child is repeatedly exhibiting inappropriate and unwanted behaviour (e.g. hitting sibling), which conditioning procedures could be used to most effectively stop this? Behaviours that produce favourable consequences are repeated and become habits, but those that produce unfavourable consequences tend not to recur (Ouellette and Wood, 1998 as cited in Martin et.al, 2006). Experience changes the probability of repeating certain behaviours indicating that learning involves adaptation. As time goes on, old behaviours are eliminated and new behaviours are learned. Pavlov discovered and formalized many of the most important laws of classical behaviour, B.F.Skinner (1938) investigated and formalized may of the basic laws of operant behavior. (Sheppard & Willoughby, 1975). Habituation and classical conditioning taught us the stimuli in the environment…

Martha Rinaldi Case Analysis

BACKGROUND Martha Rinaldi, a twenty seven year old aspiring business woman who has recently completed her MBA. Originally from Iowa, she completed her undergraduate degree in Computer Science in 2006 from the University of Iowa. From there, Rinaldi began her MBA at a top notch business school in Chicago, with her focus on marketing. After completing her first year in the MBA program, Rinaldi took a summer internship as assistant to the Director of Promotions at a Chicago based restaurant chain called Deep Dive Pizza. During her short time at Deep Dive, Rinaldi contributed ideas about brand awareness and new product development. But her most noticeable contribution came from her final return on investments presentation. This persuasive presentation caught the…

History of Behavior Modification

Behavior Modification is defined as the use of rewards or punishments to reduce or eliminate problematic behavior, or to teach an individual new responses to environmental stimuli. The goal of a behavior modification program is to change and adjust behavior that is inappropriate or undesirable. Two main tools used in behavior modification are positive and negative reinforcement. Behavior modification can be traced to lab research as far back as the 1800’s and 1900’s. Most of this research was done through experimenting with animals. Many had impacting research, here are a few. Ivan P. Pavlov (1849-1936) -Concerned with stimuli that evoke responses (noise, food, lights, etc.) -Pavlov’s famous dogs: Gastric secretions were stimulated at the sight of food (a reflex response)….

Sniffy The Virtual Rat Experiment

The purpose of this experiment was to test whether training a simulated rat under a Partial Reinforcement Schedule took longer to extinguish than being trained in a Continuous Reinforcement Schedule. The subject involved was a computer based rat. The rat was trained in a Skinner box to bar press under each a continuous reinforcement schedule and a partial reinforcement schedule. Extinction of both schedules was done and times were reported. The hypothesis was that a rat under a partial reinforcement schedule would take longer to extinguish its behaviour rather than the continuous reinforcement schedule extinction. Results were analyzed under the complications of the conditioning of the animal under these schedules. Studying the behaviours of animals has been a great importance…

Principles Of Behaviorism

The principles of behaviorism are represented through a sequence of events and possibly lead to “time-out” period. Time-out is used by parents as a disciplinary tool towards their misbehaving child. Parents respond to a child’s actions through reinforcement, whether it be expressed by a positive or negative feedback. When a child does something unacceptable or troublesome the parent may use seclusion as a type of punishment known as “time-out.” After the child has done something wrong they must sit in a quiet area by themselves and ‘think about what they had done wrong.’ The time-out isolation usually is dismissed after the child has “cooled down” and acknowledges their behavior and is ready to act appropriately. Time-out usually influences a child’s…

Gerald Mahoney

1. Gerald Mahoney’s attitude and performance dramatically changed after a few months on the job. What type of training should Mahoney have immediately received from John Timmson that might have avoided this? Gerald should have received some type of on-the-job training that goes over ever piece of detail that needs to be attended to. John left everything up to Gerald then eventually got upset when business was not being taken care of. The reason for on-the-job training, is because John can use the opportunity of OJT to really teach Gerald how he wants the store ran, and what transactions he want done on a daily basis. 2. Assuming Timmson keeps Mahoney as the store manager, what would be the steps…

Development and frameworks support development influence current practice

Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development focusses on how children acquire knowledge and learn. He believed that when a child and an adult are given the same logical question children gave less sophisticated answers, not because they were less competent than the adults but because children are born with an extremely simple mental structure which is the basis for the child’s knowledge and learning ability. He suggests that children go through four stages of intellectual growth: 0-2yrs – Sensorimotor, i.e. motor control and learning about objects, the child explores the environment around them using their senses; 2-7yrs – Preoperational, verbal skills development, the child understands the use of symbols and language; 7-11yrs – Concrete Operational, beginning to grasp abstract concepts,…

My Knowledge Positive Replacement Behaviors

Positive replacement behaviors seem simple enough to understand when breaking down each word. It’s to have the undesired behavior or desired behavior replaced with a positive reinforcement. When doing this you want to try and bring in a replacement behaviors. It is helpful to have a target behavior that is not compatible with its. For example if Roger doesn’t like to have his shoes untied because he has difficulty tying them, make sure to ask his parents or try to obtain shoes that don’t need tying like Velcro. Overall as an educator you want to try and avoid the target behavior and use the replacement behavior as much as possible. What does reinforcement mean? Reinforcement in simple terms is defined…

Ap Psych Free Response

As the Smith-Garcias are planning for their baby, they have to decide which principles from each of the theories they have researched that they will practice. The first of these theories is Skinner’s Operant Conditioning in which an element of reinforcement and punishment is utilized to shape the child’s social and behavioral skills. It will be the parent’s job to reinforce wanted behavior and punish unwanted behavior. For example, if the child throws a temper tantrum, her parents might put her in time out to show that this type of behavior is not acceptable. The punishment therefore reinforces that if she acts this way again, she knows she will be placed in time out. Essentially the child learns from these…