Bendak, L. (2011). The role of individual educational plans in helping cycle one students with dyslexia to become better readers. Middle East Journal of Family Medicine; Nov2011, Vol. 9 Issue 9, p42-47, 6p. Retrieved January 18,2013 from http://0-web. ebscohost. com. lib1000. dlsu. edu. ph/ehost/detail? sid=16696efa-2beb-42868b5ec73dca138979%40sessionmgr12&vid=1&hid=11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ %3d%3d Abstract The purpose of this study is to highlight the importance and role of Individual Educational Plans (IEP) in helping students with Dyslexia, ages six to nine at cycle one of their elementary education.
This study emphasizes the need for special education departments in schools where special education teachers can enhance the educational development of students with Dyslexia through the IEPs that identify the individual points of strength and weakness of the student with Dyslexia. The results of this study showed that the efficacy of the IEP on the development of the reading level varied depending on the initial level of difficulty of the student.  Burns M. K. , Jacob S. , Wagner A. R.
(2007) Ethical and legal issues associated with using response-to-intervention to assess learning disabilities. Journal of School Psychology 46 (2008) 263–279. Retrieved January 18, 2013 from http://faculty. winthrop. edu/armisteadl/SchoolPsychologyResources/attachments/Burnsi_ M_K__Ethical_a. pdf Abstract The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 allows schools to use a child’s response to research-based intervention (RTI) as a part of procedures to identify students with learning disabilities.
This paper considers whether RTI-based assessment models meet ethical and legal standards for acceptable assessment practices. Based on a review of available research, it was concluded that RTI based assessment practices, when carefully crafted and implemented, have the potential to be multifaceted, fair, valid, and useful.
Threats to acceptable RTI-based assessment practices include: the lack of research-based interventions appropriate for diverse academic domains, ethnic groups, grades K12, and students with limited English proficiency; uncertainty regarding how to determine when nonresponse to intervention warrants formal referral for evaluation of special education eligibility; difficulty translating scientifically sound RTI practices to the local school level; and inadequate staff training and poor treatment fidelity. Suggested directions for future research are included.
 Capizzi, A. M. (2008) From assessment to annual goal. Teaching Exceptional Children; Sep/Oct2008, Vol. 41 Issue 1, p18-25, 8p. Retrieved January 19, 2012 from http://0-web. ebscohost. com. lib1000. dlsu. edu. ph/ehost/detail? sid=66b5e959-686e-482bb3e7ead5ad631980%40sessionmgr11&vid=1&hid=11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ %3d%3d Abstract The article discusses the process of writing individualized education plans (IEPs) for special needs students and the decision making process that is involved to find and implement meaningful teaching methods and activities.
It is noted that present levels of academic achievement and functional performance (PLAAFP) and other evaluation data must be utilized in the IEP plan. The impact that the U. S. Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) has on IEPs demonstrates that the measurement of academic progress is a central goal of any IEP.  Dunn, Michael W. (2007) Diagnosing reading disability: Reading recovery as a component of a response-to-intervention assessment method. Learning Disabilities:
A Contemporary Journal, v5 n2 p31-47 2007. Retrieved January 18, 2013 from http://www.eric. ed. gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini. jsp? _nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSe arch_SearchValue_0=EJ797663&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ79766 3 Abstract There is growing evidence that the current method of identifying students with a learning disability (LD) is ineffective. The wait-to-fail model of assessing students after second/third grade as well as conceptual problems in using intelligence tests for identification result in students not receiving the assistance they need during the earlyelementary school years.
The educational community is discussing response to intervention (RTI) as an alternative assessment method. This study explored the assessment components of the Reading Recovery (RR) program as part of a future RTI model. By means of a discriminant-function analysis, a retrospective study of thirdthrough fifth-grade students who participated in RR during first grade investigated assessment elements (beginning text level, ending text level, and number of weeks’ participation in RR) of this program.
The results showed that RR assessment elements were significant predictors of first-grade students who were later identified as having a reading disability. Ending text level was consistently the largest predictor of students later classified as having a reading disability or not. (Contains 4 tables. )  Dykeman, Bruce F. (2006) Alternative strategies in assessing special education needs. Education, v127 n2 p265-273 Win 2006. Retrieved January 18, 2013 from http://www. eric. ed. gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.
jsp? _nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSe arch_SearchValue_0=EJ765825&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ76582 5. Abstract The conventional use of standardized testing within a discrepancy analysis model is reviewed. The Response-to-Intervention (RTI) process is explained, along with descriptions of assessment procedures within RTI: functional assessment, authentic assessment, curriculum-based measurement, and play-based assessment. Psychometric issues relevant to RTI and standardized testing are discussed.  Dykeman, Bruce F.
(2009) Response to Intervention: The Functional Assessment of Children Returning to School with Traumatic Brain Injury. Education, v130 n2 p295-300 Win 2009. Retrieved January 18, 2013 from http://www. eric. ed. gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini. jsp? _nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSe arch_SearchValue_0=EJ871665&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ87166 5 Abstract Children with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) face many demands when completing their rehabilitation and returning to school. Although the prognosis can be favorable for many children, the course of recovery poses unique challenges for children and staff alike.
To this end, a functional assessment of TBI children within a Response-to-Intervention (RTI) model provides a comprehensive strategy of easing transition to the school and charting progress throughout the course of recovery. Literature is reviewed and applicability to the RTI model is discussed.  Fabiano, G. A. et. al. (2010) Enhancing the effectiveness of special education programming for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using a daily report card. School Psychology Review; 2010, Vol.39 Issue 2, p219-239, 21p. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from http://0web. ebscohost. com. lib1000. dlsu. edu. ph/ehost/detail?
sid=639450fe-4a86-49fa-858914d34d130ecc%40sessionmgr4&vid=1&hid=11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ% 3d%3d. Abstract Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) make up a considerable proportion of students who receive special education services in schools. The present study aimed to enhance the outcomes of students with ADHD in special education settings by using a daily report card (DRC).
Thirty-three children with ADHD in special education placements were randomly assigned to an intervention condition wherein behavioral consultants worked with the teacher and parent to construct and implement a DRC based on the child’s individualized education plan goals and objectives. These children were compared to 30 children in a business as usual control condition. Results indicated positive effects of the DRC on observations of classroom functioning, individualized education plan goal attainment, and teacher ratings of academic productivity and disruptive behavior in the classroom.
Further, a greater percentage of children with ADHD in the DRC group were normalized on measures of disruptive behavior and impairment. The intervention did not result in incremental improvement in academic achievement, teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms or impairment, or the student-teacher relationship. The implications of these results for working with children with ADHD in special education settings are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]  Grigorenko E. L. (2010). Dynamic assessment and response to intervention: Two sides of one coin.
Journal of Learning Disability 42  111-132. Retrieved January 18, 2013 from http://ldx. sagepub. com/content/42/2/111. full. pdf+html Abstract This article compares and contrasts the main features of dynamic testing and assessment (DT/A) and response to intervention (RTI). The comparison is carried out along the following lines: (a) historical and empirical roots of both concepts, (b) premises underlying DT/A and RTI, (c) terms used in these concepts, (d) use of these concepts, (e) evidence in support of DT/A and RTI, and (f) expectations associated with each of the concepts.
The main outcome of this comparison is a conclusion that both approaches belong to one family of methodologies in psychology and education whose key feature is in blending assessment and intervention in one holistic activity. Because DT/A has been around much longer than RTI, it makes sense for the proponents of RTI to consider both the accomplishments and frustrations that have accumulated in the field of DT/A.  Haydon T. (2012). Using functional behavior assessment to match task difficulty for a 5th grade student: A case study.
Education Treatment of Children, 35 , 459-476 Abstract We used an AB design with a control condition to examine the effects of an academic strategy on a student with a learning disability during a 5th grade math class. During baseline the student had high rates of disruptive behavior, low percentages of intervals of on-task behavior, and low percentages of correct responses. An antecedent-based intervention was developed to target the student’s escape-maintained behavior during independent seatwork.
The intervention consisted of matching task difficulty with the student’s level of performance based on his success in a special education resource room. During intervention the targeted student demonstrated lower rates of disruptive behavior, higher levels of on-task behavior, and higher percentages of correct responses. The student’s positive results were compared to his performance in a special education resource room. A discussion on study limitations, implications, and future research directions is included.  Kern L.
(2007). Functional Assessment-Based Intervention for Selective Mutism. Behavioral Disorders; Feb2007, Vol. 32 Issue 2, p94-108, 15p. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from http://0-web. ebscohost. com. lib1000. dlsu. edu. ph/ehost/detail? sid=652066c08587-4865-a2d7fd85e2d7e7c5%40sessionmgr11&vid=1&hid=11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ %3d%3d Abstract The process of functional assessment has emerged as an essential component for intervention development. Applications across divergent types of problem behavior, however, remain limited.
This study evaluated the applicability of this promising approach to students with selective mutism. Two middle school students served as participants. The functional assessment included indirect and direct methods as well as a specially designed student interview that did not require speech. Individualized interventions were developed and experimentally evaluated. Results indicated that the assessment-based interventions effectively increased speaking in school contexts. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] .
Lynch, S. & Adams, P. (2008) Developing Standards-Based Individualized Education Program Objectives for Students With Significant Needs. Teaching Exceptional Children; Jan/Feb2008, Vol. 40 Issue 3, p36-39, 4p. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from http://0-web. ebscohost. com. lib1000. dlsu. edu. ph/ehost/detail? sid=ca2e5664-4ebc-4a20800f8331f3bca0c6%40sessionmgr4&vid=1&hid=11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ% 3d%3d.