Nowadays, most people consider the sustainable transport passengers and freight, Logistics is the operation of the center of the modern transportation system, mean a certain level of organization and control freight only modern technology came into being. It has turn into one of the most important developments in the transport sector. Within the range of the green degree of concern for the environment has become a code word, and is generally considered to be positive. It is used to suggestions and environmental compatibility, and therefore, such as logistics is considered beneficial.
When these two words together, it is recommended that the environmental protection, and efficient transportation and distribution system. Green Logistics Supply chain management practices and strategies to reduce the environmental and energy consumption of the goods distribution. It focuses
on material handling, waste management, packaging and transport.
A company can focus on the product packaging, and other alternative fuel vehicles, ongoing green logistics. However, a closer look at the concept and its applications, there has been a large number of contradictions and inconsistencies, which indicate that might have been expected in the first place, its applications may be more difficult. Although there have been a lot of debate on green logistics truly bring transport industry development is very narrow and specific interests. Reduce transportation costs, better utilization of assets, such as vehicles, terminals and distribution centers, green logistics strategy is implemented. In assumptions and many other areas of human endeavor, the green became a slogan in the transportation industry in the late 20 1980s and early 1990s
2. Literature Review
3.1 Definition of Green Logistics
Abukhader and Jonsson call “green logistics” represents the convergence of several stands of research that began at different times over the past 40 years. There have five themes: reducing freight, transport externalities, city logistics, reverse logistics, corporate environmental strategies towards logistics and green logistics research (Abukhader and Jonsson, 2004)
McKinnon defined green logistics identifies several ways for companies to reduce the environmental impact of transport and logistics activities, including modal changes and intermodal solutions (McKinnon, 2010a; Woodburn and Whiteing, 2010), advances in technology solutions (McKinnon, 2010b), tools for assessing the carbon footprint of activities (Eglese and Black, 2010; Lieb and Lieb, 2010; McKinnon, 2010c; Piecyk, 2010), green transport management (Lieb and Lieb, 2010), and green logistics system design (Aronsson and Huge-Brodin, 2006; Kohn and Huge-Brodin, 2008; Harris et al., 2010).
Schmied differentiate four elements influence green logistics – company, customers, politics, and society. According to customer requirements delivered with clean vehicles or in such manner that the emissions are minimized, forcing suppliers to go to green solutions, although normally they will not do. Customers can go to superstores that are built in places having convenient road system and avoid that are built in such way that reaching them may cause extra emissions. Perhaps the biggest affect from customers may be home delivery, as they are the direct users of this service. (Schmied 2010)
Definition of Reverse Logistics
Reverse logistics is defined as “. . . the process of planning, implementing and controlling the efficient, cost-effective flow of raw materials, in process inventory, finished goods and related information from the point of consumption to the point of origin for the purpose of recapturing or creating value or for proper disposal.” (Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1999)
Reverse logistics and handling returns present a formidable challenge for companies. Many times internal issues impede the development of a good reverse logistics program. Rogers and Tibben-Lembke (1999) surveyed firms about the kinds of issues that cause difficulties and limit their success in the area.
Reverse logistics including from the use of the product, when you no longer use, of recycled products in the market. In other words, reverse logistics related to the planning, implementation and control of high efficiency, low-cost flow of raw materials, in-process inventory, finished goods and related information from the consumer products of value or proper disposal retrieval (Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Reverse distribution activities can affect the foundation and the survival of the company’s business growth, and how they respond to internal and external changes and adjustments, in order to remain competitive in an increasingly stringent environmental regulations (Jayaraman, Patterson, & Rolland, 2003).Reverse logistics activities differ from traditional logistics ones (Carter & Ellram, 1998; Tibben-Lembke & Rogers, 2002).
Fleischmann et al. (1997) indicated that reverse logistics is not necessarily a symmetric picture of forward distribution. Table 1 summarizes the difference between the reverse logistics and forward logistics adapted by Tibben-Lembke and Rogers (2002). Many studies have also suggested that reverse logistics activities are more complex to manage than forward logistics activities (Amini et al., 2005; Rosen, 2001; Tibben-Lembke & Rogers, 2002). Owing to uncertain and inconsistent demand, flexible capacity requirements for stora ge,processing, and transportation activities are necessary (Amini et al., 2005; Blumberg, 1999). Therefore, many manufacturing firms with limited resources and capabilities outsource their reverse logistics operation requirements to 3PLs (Krumwiede & Sheu, 2002).
3. Case study – Treeland Services Company Ltd
4.3 Treeland Services Company background
Treeland services company ltd is an environmental recycle company, they core business specialized in environmental protection, waste organization and recycling services, they vision is through recycling, reusing, and to minimize the amount of waste to achieve the ideal of “zero waste”, reducing waste disposal at landfills, and consequently the pollution on the earth.
Treeland services company ltd get the qualification of waste collector/recycler under the Environmental Protection Department of HKSAR and ISO 14001: 2004.
For the other business they provide the “Data Degaussing Service: that mean will erase all data in Magnetic storage e.g. Hard Disk, Tape etc…
4.4 Working procedure of TreeLand Services Company Ltd The working procedure for TreeLand disposal services separate four phase ; 1)Collect and Transportation 2)Storage 3) Classify and Process 4) Distribution
Phase 1 – Collect and Transportation
Start on a contact the client of appointment and arrange the suitable transportation tools for collection. For next, the workers separate the different segment disposal items such as data media, monitor, keyboard & mouse, main broad etc. the workers was countering the material on the site, then they are transport to secured warehouse.
Phase 2 – Storage
In warehouse, the worker will write down the disposal items model number, serial number and log number, the items storage at different segment area. And then all magnetic media are erase data by Degaussing. Degausser generate strong magnetic field for destroying magnetic storage and erase the magnetic area in random patterns with no preference to direction, thereby rendering previous data unrecoverable.
Phase 3 – Classify and Process
Classify the disposal items separate the two main stream 1) useless disposal items 2) Useful disposal items: Useless disposal items: send to useless parts workshop dismantle the items; separate the plastic parts, metal parts and glass for recycle. The plastic parts will process destruction become the small plastic pellets by the plastic disintegrator. The metal parts separate the different type of metal. For the useful recycle metal such as steel, aluminum, iron etc, they will storage together waiting for resell to recycler.
The non-recycle metal will discard by suitable waste place and glass is waiting to resell the recycler. Useful disposal items: send to repairing workshop, process the checking the parts, if the checking result is fail, they will trying to repairing the parts, when the part is also fail then pass to useless parts workshop for recycle. The pass checking parts process the testing procedure and make sure the parts are good condition for reuse.
Phase 4 – Distribution
Finally, they recycle material will sell to recycler, useless material discard to be within the law, the second hand parts after the checking and testing will be reselling to market.
3.3 Green Logistics in Treeland company Services Company Ltd
Treeland company apply the green logistics on the years. Planning has some action. Including (1) Optimizing the transfer arrangement (2) Reducing the environmental impact of warehousing 3.3.1 Optimizing the transfer arrangement
Decrease in costs comes partly from a decrease in unnecessary distance travelled by choosing use of better routes, which in itself can lead to a decrease in fuel using and hence a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions.
3.3.2 Reducing the environmental impact of warehousing Treeland executed two method to reducing the cost of warehousing. Manage the warehouse temperature:
* Only Opening the warehouse door on the vehicle activity, * Change the barriers such as fast-acting doors in areas frequented by forklift trucks, plastic strip barriers and close-fitting door locks * Separate intake or dispatch areas from other areas of activity * Adopt the thermostats in all warehouses zone and time-controll.
Manage the warehouse lighting
* Assess lighting efficiently evaluate functional performance, cost, energy use and resultant emissions * Using Light Emitting Diodes replace the non-efficiently lighting * Relocate the light position optimizing the light function
3.3 Electronic waste with Hazardous materials
Although not widely known, electronic waste does contain a lot of toxic substances such as circuit board have lead and cadmium; In display unit cathode ray tube contain the cadmium and lead oxide; Mercury in the Flat screen display; cadmium in computer batteries; Capacitor and the converter of the PVC
Since the electronic waste including harmful material, handle and recycling electronic waste involve strict legal regulations and environmental requirement. When electronic waste to be landfilled or incinerated will have a very serious problem of pollution, the landfill will make poisons leak into the groundwater, of incineration will produce including dioxin and other toxic gases. However, the handling of the computer recycling involves the health and environmental problems, especially when the recycling industry profit, without taking measures to protect the environment and workers’ health.
Lead – the harmful effects of lead has long been recognized as early as the 1970s, some countries banned from gasoline. Lead can cause damage to the brain and central nervous system, blood system, kidneys and reproductive system. And would have a negative impact on the child’s brain development, lead can accumulate in the environment, which animals and plants, microbes have a strong and long-lasting impact. Computer leaded parts: the glass screen of the computer monitor (1.4 to 3.5 kg / each monitor), circuit board or other welded components.
Cadmium – cadmium compounds is also very harmful to human, and will accumulate in the human body, particularly in the kidney. Cadmium contained in the following element, SMD resistor, an infrared generator, a semiconductor, etc., cadmium also plastic curing agent, also contain it in the old cathode ray tube.
Mercury – mercury will cause a lot of damage to the organs, including the brain, kidney, ovarian, serious fetal development is the mother handed over quite sensitive to mercury. We know that when inorganic mercury spilled into the water, will be transformed into methylmercury sink to the bottom. Methylmercury easily accumulate in the body, as well as enrichment through the food chain, especially fish. It is estimated that 22% of the annual global consumption of mercury is used in electrical and electronic products; it is used in thermometers, sensors, block converter (such as circuit board and measuring devices), medical equipment, lights, mobile phones and batteries. Mercury, used in flat screen monitors screen gradually replaces the old cathode ray tube display.
Hexavalent chromium – hexavalent chromium still used Steel Sheet and Kennedy and landscaping treatment. It is very easy to cross the cell membrane is then absorbed, then the toxic effects of contaminated cells. Hexavalent chromium also damage DNA, is a highly toxic substance in the environment.
Contain PVC plastic – an average of 13.8 pounds of plastic each computer. The large amount of plastic used in electronic products (26%) contain PVC, PVC is mainly used to wrap lines and computer casings, despite many computers mold has begun to use non-toxic ABS plastic. PVC is widely used mainly because of its fire blocking characteristics, with a lot of other chlorine-containing compound, when the combustion of the PVC at a certain temperature will produce dioxins.
Brominated flame retardant material (BFRs) – BFRs are used in the plastic housing of the electronic products, as well as the circuit board to prevent smoke, some types of BFRs by the European Parliament as from 2003 to 2006 to cancel
Barium – Barium is a soft, silver-white metal, is used on the computer monitor cathode ray tube screen, in order to protect the user from radiation, studies have shown that even short-term exposure to barium can lead to brain swelling, muscle weakness, and damage the heart, liver, and spleen. But there is no information on long-term exposure to Barium. Animal studies have shown that feeding barium period of time, high blood pressure, heart change.
Beryllium – Beryllium is a steel gray metal, quite light, hard, but also a good conductor of electricity and heat, but is not magnetic, these features make beryllium is very suitable for various industrial applications, including electronic products such as computer. Beryllium is widely used in the computer, motherboard and keyboard negatives, beryllium copper alloy used to strengthen the connection elastic while maintaining conductivity.
Beryllium has recently been considered carcinogens cause lung cancer. The main concern is that the the beryllium wear gray, fog. Long-term exposure to beryllium workers, even if it is a small dose, will easily lead to beryllium long-term disease, a lung disease. Contact with beryllium can lead to a skin disease, characterized by minor abrasions and swollen, and studies have shown that even if longer exposure to beryllium, even after many years will continue to beryllium long-term disease.
Ink – the computer’s external equipment such as printers included in the black or color ink. The main component of the black ink is carbon black. Breathing is a major route of exposure to the strong contact causes irritation to the respiratory system. The International Agency for Research on Cancer carbon black as a category 2B carcinogen, the person may be carcinogenic. Color ink, not what the research report shows that these color inks contain heavy metals (blue, yellow and red).
Phosphides, and other additives – phosphide is an inorganic compound, which is applied to the coating of the inner surface of the glass of a cathode ray (CRTs). Phosphorescent effect we can see the display image. CRTs in phosphorus harmful and unknown, but the U.S. Navy in their guidance Ordinance is to say: “Do not touch the CRTs of phosphorus coating: it is highly toxic. If you broke CRTs, carefully clean out the glass debris. If you encounter a phosphide. quickly found a physician. “the phosphorus coating also contain heavy metals, such as zinc, vanadium as additives. These metals and their compounds are also toxic. These are workers dismantled by hand CRTs will be harmful.
3 Prospect of green logistics
Green logistics is the goal to reduce environmental pollution, reduce resource consumption, the use of advanced logistics technology planning and implementation of the transportation, storage, handling, distribution processing, and distribution, packaging and logistics activities. Green Logistics emphasizes global and long-term interests, and emphasized that the full range of environmental concerns, reflects the company’s green image, is an entirely new form logistics. Green Logistics is a multi-layered concept both green logistics activities including social management of green logistics activities, regulate and control. Range of logistics activities from the environmental point of view, both including the green logistics operations of each individual (such as green transportation, green packaging, green distribution processing, etc.), and also including the logistics of the waste recycling and reuse resources, logistics operations and management throughout the green.
Green logistics to adapt to the trend of social development in the world, the needs of the global economic integration, with the development of global economic integration, the traditional tariff and non-tariff barriers are slowly fading, ISO 14000 many enterprises to enter the global market are pass.
Improve waste recycling system, strengthen the green. From a green perspective, the result of mass production and consumption will inevitably lead to the generation of large amounts of waste. To accelerate the processing of waste, but in general, the emergence of a large number of waste remains a serious negative impact on society, and pose a serious threat to the environment. Therefore, the logistics activities in the 21st century must be to strengthen the waste recycling, improve waste recycling system.
Waste Logistics is a branch of logistics activities and logistics management, goods lose their value in economic activity, according to the actual needs of the collection, classification, processing, packaging, handling, storage, and distribution to the specialized treatment facility items formed entities flow process. Therefore, we should establish and perfect a complete range of production, distribution, consumption, waste recycling system. To achieve this goal, management from the government’s perspective, it should strengthen the management and supervision of waste recycling; from the operational point of view, companies can not only consider the efficiency of logistics, and from the entire supply chain of production, supply and vision to organize the logistics, logistics truly “green”.
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