The current issue being faced today by most educators is that during enrolment, some pupils who are promoted in Grade Three are still considered as non-readers. According to Arnold Peralta (2006), enabling the child to read in Grade 1 and 2, the primary grade is very necessary. It is in this stage that the habit of reading should be developed. If a child will not be able to read, understand what he reads and developed the habit of reading, he/she can hardly make it in the higher grades.
According to Businessdictionary. com, reading grade level means number assigned to the level of complexity of a reading material, it equates to a given level of schooling, For example, a reading grade level of seven means the reading material is intended for a seventh grade student. In the field of education, this concept is very important in determining pupils’ progress in reading. According to Juan Miguel Luz (2007), Grade Three (10 years old) is a critical year in terms of formal schooling.
Before School Year 2012-2023 preschooling is neither compulsory nor part of the package of free public education guaranteed by the Constitution, Grade Three marks the third full year of basic education for children who attend public elementary school and the year when the facility to read, write, and do the four operations of arithmetic with competence is expected. (Less than 20 percent of those who go to public elementary school actually attend a full year of preschool education).
Dropping out before this grade level thus becomes a major contributor to the lack of functional literacy, which in turn has a negative impact on adults and their eventual work productivity. This is assuming, of course, that by the end of Grade 3 (or the third year of formal full-time schooling), the children’s competence in the three ‘Rs are being honed fully. But seeing it, that may not be happening in far too many schools. Furthermore, since they learned the basic skills in reading during their previous grades, they are expected to be a good reader when they reach Grade Three.
However, there are many pupils who are still considered as non-readers. Stothard & Hulme (1996) described reading as the interaction of two distinct processes, decoding and comprehension. For skilled readers decoding is a highly automated task. Skilled readers can focus their attention on comprehension of the novel material. Low ability readers typically have difficulties studying and learning from expository textual material (Helwig, Almond, Rozek-Tedesco, Tindal, & Heath, 1999). Readers with robust verbal ability skills are more likely to analyze new information and draw inferences than their peers with low verbal ability.
DepEd intensifies reading literacy in schools by enforcing the policy called “Every Child A Reader” (the Education Post Vol. 21, No. 1). Undersecretary Bacani said the new policy aims to make every Filipino child a successful reader at the end of Grade 3. The undersecretary is expecting that no pupil will be promoted to higher grades unless he or she manifests mastery of the basic literacy skills in a particular grade (Arnold Peralta,2006). The researchers presupposed factors to consider in eradicating or minimizing non- readers in every school.
Among this are children who have spent less time in reading, their father and mother educational attainment, type of pre-school attended whether in public or private, and monthly family income. This is caused by the influence of the modern world, and parents’ inability to monitor the child’s progress because they are preoccupied with their chosen job. Some children choose to hang around malls, play computer or video games, or watch cartoons and consider reading as part of school activities that need to be forgotten during their spare time. (Arnold Peralta,2006)
On the other hand, this is maybe caused by parent’s low educational attainment, and the absence of any reading and educational materials in their homes. According to Arnold Peralta (2006), the parents’ role is very important in helping increase their children’s habits. They must be involved in any activity to improve their children’s reading ability. That is why, in relation to this, the researchers aim to conduct a study that shall determine if such factors have indeed some kind of influence with the Reading Level of Grade Three pupils of Luis Mirasol Memorial School.
Statement of the Problem This study will be conducted to determine the Reading Level of Grade Three Pupils at Luis Mirasol Memorial School. Specifically, this study aims to: 1. Describe the respondent’s socio-economic characteristics in terms of educational attainment of the father , educational attainment of the mother, and the monthly family income,type of pre-school attended, and number of hours spent in reading; 2. Determine the reading level of the respondents; 3.
Determine if there is a relationship between the respondents’ socio-economic characteristics such as: educational attainment of a father, educational attainment of mother, monthly family income, and type of pre-school attended and number of hours spent in reading of the respondents. Research Hypotheses 1. There is no significant relationship between the respondents’ socio-economic characteristics such as: educational attainment of a father, educational attainment of mother, monthly family income, and type of pre-school attended, time spent in reading and the reading level.
This study is based on various theories on reading level: According to the theory of reading as defined by (Henry,1986) that it must deal with wide range of issues and account for a wide range of behaviors and capabilities. Reading occurs when a child has developed sufficient decoding skills. Decoding is the ability to decipher printed words into meaningful spoken language. More specifically, decoding refers to the skill at which one is able to recognize sound, individual phonemes in a printed or written word and then length and those phonemes to form the sound of the word by (Adams 1990)NRP,2000;National Researcher Council,1998)
Philip Gough and Wesley Hoover (1990) describe a theory called simple review of reading, a theory that supported that decoding is necessary for reading level success. This view asserts that weaknesses in reading decoding will result in weak reading. According to (Moats 1999, p5). Reading is the fundamental skill upon which all formal education depends. Research now shows that a child who does [not] learn the basics early is unlikely to learn them at all. Any child who does learn [not] to learn to read-early and will not easily master other skills and knowledge and unlikely to ever flourish in schools or in life.
According to (Kantawala, 1980) states that, the higher the socioeconomic status the better the reading attitude, according to him students of small size family had a more favourable reading attitude than those of large families. Due to the lack of independent reading student may not have developed the positive attitude towards reading. Conceptual Framework Reading level is one of the problems of teachers and parents with regards to their pupils and children.
As parents become worried on the reading level of their sons and daughters many of them are unaware of the factors which may significantly affect such occurrence. These pupils on the other hand, who have delayed reading level, frequently, consider reading a task for them to study. In this study, Monthly family income, Preschool last attended, Time spent in reading serves as the Independent Variables while Reading level serve as the Dependent Variable. In terms of Monthly Family Income the researcher believe that those respondents with a higher monthly family income are expected to have a high reading level.
In terms of Pre-school last attended, researchers believe that those pupils who obtain schooling in private pre-school than in public are expected to a have high reading level. In terms of Time spent in reading, the researchers believe that those who spent much time in reading are expected to have high reading level. Independent variable 1. Socio-economic characteristics * Educational attainment the father * Educational attainment the mother * Monthly family income 2. Type of school where pre-school education was obtained * Public * Private 3.
Time spent in reading Dependent variable Reading Level Figure 1. A Schematic diagram showing the relationship between the Independent and Dependent Variables. Definition of Terms To establish a frame of understanding for both the researchers and readers to facilitate correct interpretation of the results of the study, the following term were defined: Educational Attainment of Father – this pertains to the highest level of instruction, obtained in an institution of learning by the father. It is classified as elementary, high school or college.
Educational Attainment of Mother – this pertains to the highest level of instruction, obtained in an institution of learning by the mother. It is classified as elementary, high school or college. Monthly Family Income. This refers to the total gross income of the pupils family per month and is further classified into High (Php 5000 and above), Average (Php2500 and above), Low (1500 and below). Pre-school last attended. Type of school where pre-school education was obtained whether it is in Day Care Center or Pre-Elementary Public School. Time Spent in Reading.
This refers to average time not less than 80 to 100 minutes of independent or shared reading per week by the pupils. Reading Level- reading will be measured by using the IRI assessment and the respondents will be ranked through Frustration level, Instructional Level, Independent Level. Scope and Limitation of the Study This study aims to determine the factors related to the Reading Level of Grade 3 pupils at Luis Mirasol Memorial School during the School Year 2012-2013. This study will be conducted at Luis Mirasol Memorial School for convenience of both the researchers and the respondents.
The Grade 3 pupils were selected as respondents of this study. The information needed in this study will be gathered using a self-administered questionnaire structured by the researchers. Furthermore, the interview and questionnaire will use to test the reliability of the research instrument. This study would be more reliable if it covers a larger scope and if more respondents will be involved. But this will also mean more effort, time and money that the researchers despondently lack. Significance of the study.
The results of this investigation are expected to be highly beneficial to the following: Central Philippine University—College of Education. As an educational institution that hones every individual to become successful professionals in the future, the problem would be beneficial to the College of Education for the outreach center in the field study, to plan out certain programs, and strategies for the Luis Mirasol Memorial School as a partnership of Central Philippine University. Luis Mirasol Memorial School.
If this study proves to be beneficial as a means of basis and standards, teachers will be able to find new ways and strategies on how to improve the reading level of their pupils. Parents. As the legal guardians of the children, the results of this investigation would serve as a stimuli towards their awareness on the factors that affect the reading level of their children. Furthermore, this study would initiate them to be more involved to follow up their children at home with partnership to the teacher and open line communication for the development of their children. Elementary Pupils.
Whenever proven that the mentioned factors have something to do with the Reading Level of the pupils, the pupils themselves can learn and even do something to counteract negative impact caused by such factors as to their reading skills. Researchers. The outcome and conclusions drawn from this study will be beneficial to other researchers as a guideline for future studies. Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Educational Attainment of both Parents and Reading Level Research on parenting also has shown that parent education is related to a warm, social climate in the home. Klebanov et al.
(1994) found that both mothers’ education and family income were important predictors of the physical environment and learning experiences in the home but that mothers’ education alone was predictive of parental warmth. Likewise, Smith et al. (1997) found that the association of family income and parents’ education with children’s academic achievement was mediated by the home environment. The mediation effect was stronger for maternal education than for family income. Thus, these authors posited that education might be linked to specific achievement behaviors in the home (e. g. , reading, playing).
Preschool Attended and Reading Level Preschool helps children to use their minds by knowing where the child means also knowing how his mind deals with the activities of the curriculum and other experiences in the early years. Mental operation most relevant for early education can be grouped into 3 major areas: perception, memory and problem solving. According to Maria Montessori, early education has an indispensable role in the whole personality of the child. The stage of human development from 0-6 years is the stage of the most absorbent mind and the critical period of a child.
This stage is the most sensitive period in the life of the child that needed a wholesome, healthful and rich background. If a child fails in reading during the primary grades, his chances for success in any other academic area are greatly reduced. It is therefore essential that a pre-school program for children do all it can to ensure that the children will succeed in reading when they enter school. (http://onlineacademics. org/ReadingDiagnosis. html) Preschool improves children’s problem solving abilities for elementary school.
Educational advocates recognize early childhood education, during the preschool years, as among the most enduring and beneficial services a community can provide for its children. Some parents choose to delay formal education until kindergarten, instead instructing their children in reading readiness tasks and offering enrichment classes at home. Children who aren’t offered these opportunities, whether at home or in a formal school setting, perform below their kindergarten classmates in reading and social readiness. (W. Steven Barnett; January 2006).
According to a study by Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, children who attended preschool scored at a higher reading level than children who did not attend preschool. Even if they couldn’t read, exposure to reading, books and listening to stories resulted in higher levels of letter and number recognition. When introduced to numbers and letters during kindergarten, children who attended preschool already had conceptual and visual familiarity, making it easier for them to make sense of written words. This advantage in reading comprehension and ability continued through age 15. Time Spent in Reading and Reading Level.
(U. S. Department of Education, 1986) have recently reiterated the assertion that time spent reading at school and at home is an important facet of a reading program. Despite the perceived importance of time spent reading, a number of studies have found that intermediate grade students spend relatively little time reading at school or at home. It has been well documented that, in general, the amount of time that students are engaged in academic tasks during the reading period at school is positively correlated with gains in reading achievement (Brophy & Good,1986; Fisher et al. , 1980; Stallings & Kaskowitz, 1974).
At the same time, however, many activities besides silent reading occur during the reading period (Anderson et al. , 1985). Consequently, studies on general student engagement during the reading period do not provide direct evidence of a meaningful relationship between time spent on silent reading and reading achievement. A few studies have supported the assertion that time engaged in silent reading is an important determinant of elementary students’ reading achievement. Greaney (1980) found a positive relationship between the amount of time spent reading at home and the reading achievement of elementary-age children.
In effect, the assertion that time engaged in silent reading at school and at home is important for children’s reading growth has little empirical support; the literature contains surprisingly few studies that have actually found significant relations between time engaged in silent reading and gains in reading achievement for intermediate grade students. In fact, Wilkinson et al. (1988) and Anderson et al. (1988) have recently bemoaned the paucity of evidence. Thus, in the present study we focus on the relationship between reading and achievement gains.
We attempt to provide data directly relevant to the policy question of whether or not elementary teachers and administrators should advocate students devoting more time to silent reading at school and at home. Synthesis of Review of Related Literature The Related Literature presented above revealed that there are certain existing factors related to the Reading Level of the pupils in an educational institution. It was mentioned by Klebanov et al. (1994) that education of parents and family income were important predictors of the physical environment and learning experiences in the home.
Likewise, Smith et al. (1997) found that the association of family income and parents’ education with children’s academic achievement was mediated by the home environment. The pre-school program for children do all it can to ensure that the children will succeed in reading when they enter school (Maria Montessori). This serve as a foundation to their basic learning during their elementary grades.
The time spent on reading has been beneficial to children who read during their free time. It has been well documented that, in general, the amount of time that students are engaged in academic tasks during the reading period at school is positively correlated with gains in reading achievement (Brophy & Good,1986; Fisher et al. , 1980; Stallings & Kaskowitz, 1974).
Chapter III METHODOLOGY This chapter presents a description of the Research Design, locale of Study, Sampling Population, Research Instrument, Data Gathering Procedure and Data Analysis. Research Design The non –experimental Design, Specifically the One shot survey was used in this study since it is the most appropriate approach in collecting the prescribed data.
This design is suitable for the collection of descriptive information about the population or subjects of the study. Moreover, the design requires data to be collected once and it also utilized when the objective is describe a situation or condition of a study population as it exist. Locale of the Study The data and information needed in this study was obtained at Luis Mirasol Memorial School, for the convenience of both the respondents and the researchers. The locale is also appropriate, as it can accommodate all the respondents of the study. Respondents of the Study.
All of the Grade III pupils from Luis Mirasol Memorial School will be taken as respondents of this study. Census of the total population from the mention institution will be formally obtained with proper permission from the School’s Principal with the total 70 respondents. Data Gathering Instrument The information needed in this study will be gathered using self-administered questionnaire and to be structured by the researchers. It consists of four parts:
The first part of the instrument will asks about the Educational Attainment of both Parents, the second part pertains to the Family Income of the respondents, the third part will asks about the Type of Pre-school the respondent attended, and the fourth part is the number of hours that the respondents spent in reading. Data Processing and Analysis The data in this study will be subjected to computer processed statistics using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) Program. A coding manual was prepared for easy facilitation of the data.
In order to achieve the goals of the study, Descriptive Statistics which included the mean and Inferential Statistics which included the frequency count and percentage of the results was used. CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION The following are the results of our study conducted during the summer of 2012. We interviewed 53 students and the results show that when the respondents are grouped according to educational attainment of the father, the results are: Table 1. Distribution of Respondents According To Educational Attainment of the Father EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OF THE FATHER| | Frequency (F)| Percent %| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| | Elementary| 4| 7. 5| 7. 5| 7. 5| | High School| 15| 28. 3| 28. 3| 35. 8| | College Level| 6| 11. 3| 11. 3| 47. 2| | College Graduate| 28| 52. 8| 52. 8| 100. 0| |
Total| 53| 100.0| 100. 0| | In table 1, out of the 53 respondents, majority of their fathers are college graduate, 28 in total which comprise 52. 8% of the total population, followed by fathers who are high school graduates 15 in total, which comprise 28% of the total population. College level fathers and Elementary graduate are the bottom two, 6 and 4 in total respectively and comprise 11. 3% and 7. 5% of the total population. The data shows that the degree of educational attainment of mother does not affect the reading level of the pupils.
Table 2. Distribution of Respondents According To Educational Attainment of the Mother EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OF THE MOTHER| | Frequency (F)| Percent %| Valid Percent %| Cumulative Percent %| | Elementary| 6| 11. 3| 11. 3| 11. 3| | High school| 15| 28. 3| 28. 3| 39. 6| | College level| 11| 20. 8| 20. 8| 60. 4| | College graduate| 21| 39. 6| 39. 6| 100. 0| |
Total| 53| 100. 0| 100. 0| | In table 2, the data shows that out of the 53 respondents, majority of their mothers are college graduate, 21 in total which comprise 39. 6% of the total population, followed by mothers who are high school graduates 15 in total, which comprise 28. 3% of the total population.
College level mothers and Elementary graduate are the bottom two, 11 and 6 in total respectively and comprise 20. 8% and 11. 3% of the total population. The data shows that the degree of educational attainment of mother does not affect the reading level of the pupils. According to____________________________________________? Table 3. Distribution of Respondents According to Monthly Income MONTHLY INCOME| | Frequency (F)| Percent %| Valid Percent %| Cumulative Percent %| | 5000 and above| 23| 43. 4| 43. 4| 43. 4| | 1501-4999| 20| 37. 7| 37. 7| 81. 1| | 1500 and below| 10| 18. 9| 18. 9| 100. 0| | Total| 53| 100.
0| 100. 0| | Out of the 53 respondents, majority of them have monthly net income above 5000, 23 in total which comprise 43. 4% of the total population, followed by those who have monthly income ranging from 1501 to 4999, 20 in total, which comprise 37. 7% of the total population, and lastly those who have monthly net income higher than 15000 comprised 18. 9% of the population, or 10 respondents. This data shows that According to Table 4. Distribution of Respondents According Type of Preschool Attended PRESCHOOL ATTENDED| | Frequency (F)| Percent %| Valid Percent %| Cumulative Percent %| | Public| 51| 96.
2| 96. 2| 96. 2| | Private| 2| 3. 8| 3. 8| 100. 0| | Total| 53| 100. 0| 100. 0| | Out of the 53 respondents, majority of them have finished their preschool in public schools, which comprise 51 respondents or 96. 2% of the entire population. The remaining 2 or 3. 8% went to private schools. This data shows that? __________________________ According to_______________________? Table 5. Distribution of Respondents According Time Spent in Reading TIME SPENT IN READING| | Frequency (F)| Percent %| Valid Percent %| Cumulative Percent %| | one hour a day| 26| 49. 1| 49. 1| 49. 1| | two hours a day| 5| 9. 4| 9.
4| 58. 5| | three hours a day| 2| 3. 8| 3. 8| 62. 3| | one hour in a week| 5| 9. 4| 9. 4| 71. 7| | three hours in a week| 2| 3. 8| 3. 8| 75. 5| | Less than one hour a week| 13| 24. 5| 24. 5| 100. 0| | Total| 53| 100. 0| 100. 0| | Out of the 53 respondents, majority of them spent one hour a day in reading, 26 in all or 49. 1%, followed by those who read less than an hour a week, 13 in all or 24. 5%. Those who read two hours a day and one hour a week are both tied which comprise 9. 4% of the population or 5 respondents in all. Same is in those who read three hours a day and three hours a week, both 2 respondents’ responds positively comprising 3. 8% of the population.
This data shows that? __________________According to_______________? When grouped according to the raw scores in Filipino reading comprehension test we get the following results: SCORES IN FILIPINO| | Valid| 53| | Missing| 0| Mean| 78. 58| Median| 80. 00| Mode| 80| Std. Deviation| 4. 050| Minimum| 59| Maximum| 83| The range of the scores in Filipino exam is from 59 to 83, 59 being the lowest and 83 the highest, with a mean score of 78. 58, mode and median at 80 and with a standard deviation of 4. 050.
(Complete table is shown in Appendix A Table 1) When grouped according to the raw scores in English reading comprehension test we get the following results: SCORES IN ENGLISH| | Valid| 53| | Missing| 0| Mean| 42. 21| Median| 44. 00| Mode| 43| Std. Deviation| 5. 749| Minimum| 17| Maximum| 49| The range of the scores in English exam is from 17 to 49, 17 being the lowest and 49 the highest, with a mean score of 42. 21, mode at 43 and median at 44 and with a standard deviation of 5. 749. (Complete table is shown in Appendix A Table 2) To test for correlation for father’s educational attainment in correlation
to the respondents core in Filipino we get, the Spearman’s Rho to be . 093 with the significance of 0. 508. In terms for correlation between the mother’s educational attainments in correlation to the respondents score in Filipino we get the Spearman’s Rho to be -0. 21, with the significance of . 440. In terms of parents net monthly income in correlation to the respondents score in Filipino we get Spearman’s Rho of -. 013 with significance of . 464. In terms preschool attended in correlation to the respondents score in Filipino we get the Spearman’s Rho to be . 066, with the significance of . 321.
In terms of time spent in reading in correlation to the respondents score in Filipino we get the Spearman’s Rho to be -0. 131, with the significance of . 176. To test for correlation for father’s educational attainment in correlation to the respondents score in English we get, the Spearman’s Rho to be . 086 with the significance of 0. 269. In terms of mother’s educational attainment in correlation to the respondents core in English we get, the Spearman’s Rho to be . 030 with the significance of 0. 415.
In terms of monthly income in correlation to the respondents core in English we get, the Spearman’s Rho to be .015 with the significance of 0. 456. In terms of preschool attended in correlation to the respondent’s core in English we get, the Spearman’s Rho to be . 088 with the significance of 0. 265. In terms of time spent in reading in correlation to the respondent’s core in English we get, the Spearman’s Rho to be -. 114 with the significance of 0. 209. (complete table of correlation see Appendix A table 3. )
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION Based on the findings of the study the following conclusion was drawn: 1. Parent’s educational attainment, both mother and the father have no significant relationship with the scores both in English and Filipino.
This means that the level educational attainment of the parents does not affects the scores in reading evaluation of the pupil. 2. Parent’s net monthly income has no significant relationship with the scores both in English and Filipino. This means that the net monthly income of the parents does not affect the scores in reading evaluation of the pupil. 3. The pre-school attended by the pupil has no significant relationship with the scores both in English and Filipino. This means that the preschool attended by the pupil does not affect the scores in reading evaluation of the pupil.
4. The pre-school attended by the pupil has no significant relationship with the scores both in English and Filipino. This means that the preschool attended by the pupil does not affect the scores in reading evaluation of the pupil. 5. The time spent by the pupil reading has no significant relationship with the scores both in English and Filipino. This means that the time spent by the pupil reading does not affect the scores in reading evaluation of the pupil. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the foregoing findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are generalized: 1.
Central Philippine University must take action and do more research as of what is the cause of the low reading level among Luis Mirasol Memorial School’s Grade III pupils. 2. Since there are no significant relationship between parent’s educational attainment, net monthly income and the reading level of a pupil, the parent’s must get involve in other ways in the pupil’s academe aside from the given two. 3. Researchers are recommended to find other factors that have probable relationship to reading level aside the factors given in this research. REFERENCES http://www. businessdictionary. com/definition/reading-grade-level-RGL.
html , Date retrieved: April 28, 2012 http:// indigo. ie/-sdblang/personal/papers. htm, Date retrieved: May 8, 2012 http://www. buzzle. com/articles/private-achools-vspublic-schools. html, Effects of Low Family Income on Children I eHow. com http:www. Ehow. com. /list _6195251-effects-low-family income children. html #ixzzluWkeyqBZ, Date retrieved: May 9, 2012 http://onlineacamemics. org/ReadingDiagnostisis. html, Date retrieved: May 11, 2012 The Philippine Journal of Education, Arnold Peralta (2006), Volume No. LXXXV, p. 243. Christian perspectives in education, Vol. 2, No. 2 Spring 2009.
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