First of all I would say thank you to our Almighty God for giving me the wisdom and the knowledge in doing this project. To my very intelligent, kind, and very patient Instructor, the Area chairman of the Teacher Education Student, Dr Angelita S. Nagun for giving advices to make this successful. Of course to my supportive and loving Parents, “Mr Danilo C. Cabato Sr and Mrs Violeta M. Cabato who sacrificed and giving their efforts for me especially for financial things.
And to my friends and classmates, cousins, Especially Mr Nesty Esteben, for helping me to do this project and giving me the words of wisdom and encouragement, all of you thank you so much and God Bless.!! APPROVAL SHEET In Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Bachelor of Elementary Education, this research proposal entitled “LEVEL OF READING HABITS OF THE TEACHER EDUCATION STUDENTS OF PSU URDANETA” has been prepared and submitted by Philip Anthony M. Cabato who hereby recommended for oral examination.
Angelita S. Nagun, Ph. D. Adviser Approved by the Committee on Oral Examination Angelita S. Nagun, Ph. D. Chairman Mariluz Segui , Ph. D Ofelia Imatong, MA. ED Member Member Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Elementary Education.
CRISTITA C. DULOS, Ph. D. Zenaida U Suyat, Ph. D. Area Chairman, College of Teacher Education Campus Executive Director LEVEL OF READING HABITS OF THE TEACHER EDUCATION STUDENTS OF PSU URDANETA CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Francis Bacon’s off quoted observation that “reading make the man full” was made almost five Centuries ago, but still rings true today in an age of wireless communication and computer technology.
Educators have expounded on the significance of reading in enhancing individual development and Cultural awareness. Whether pursued us as a pastime or as a means of furthering one’ education, for both reading keep us aware of what is going around us. It enforces us of what took place in the past affords us glimpses of what will happen in the future.
The world of one who reads in necessarily wider than that of the other who does not. It is on the forgoing premise that the literate populace, especially the youths, are argued to devote more in readings broaden their mental horizon increase their awareness of the environment, and be abreast of the chances in modern society Reading is a very important issue which is not only about enjoyment but a necessity: basic tool of education (Makotsi, 2005).
The impact of reading in people lives is extraordinary widespread. A reader can learn new skills, can become a more knowledgeable person of the whole world, and he can be stimulated to both thought and emotion. One should read books and other materials to acquire knowledge. If the reading habits is not inculcated among the student community, the school of knowledge will go in vain. The hour is come for the student community to rise up and read books. So it is found necessary to study about the reading habit to the student especially to the TEACHER EDUCATION STUDENTS OF PSU URDANETA CAMPUS, URDANETA CITY PANGASINAN.
The TEACHER EDUCATION STUDENTS OF PSU URDANETA CAMPUS, URDANETA CITY PANGASINAN are now having a problem as regards to their reading habit. As the researcher observed, many of the TEACHER EDUCATION STUDENTS OF PSU URDANETA, URDANETA CITY CAMPUS are reading only when they are told to do so and when examination or quizzes are coming.
This study will conduct to help the students and encourage TEACHER EDUCATION STUDENTS OF PSU URDANETA, URDANETA CITY CAMPUS to determine the level of reading habits and to help them determine to themselves if they have good or poor reading habits. STATEMENTS OF THE PROBLEM.
The study will seek to determine the Reading Habits of the TEACHER EDUCATION STUDENTS OF PSU URDANETA CAMPUS, URDANETA CITY PANGASINAN A. Y. 2014-2015 Especially, this study will sought to answer the following questions. What is the Demographic Profile of TEACHER EDUCATION STUDENTS OF PSU URDANETA CAMPUS, URDANETA CITY PANGASINAN A. Y. 2014-2015. a. Age b. Sex c. Parents Educational Attainment; and d. Family Income What is the Level of Reading Habits of the TEACHER EDUCATION STUDENTS OF PSU URDANETA CAMPUS, URDANETA, CITY PANGASINAN as measured by the Likert Scale questionnaire when group in terms of: a. Age b.
Sex c. Parents Educational Attainment; and d. Family Income What is the Level Reading Habits of the TEACHER EDUCATION STUDENTS OF PSU URDANETA CAMPUS, URDANETA CITY PANGASINAN as measured of by Likert Scale when group as a whole? SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study will be focusing on the Reading Habits of the TEACHER EDUCATION STUDENTS OF PSU URDANETA CAMPUS, URDANETA CITY PANGASINAN and deemed to benefit several factors. INSTRUCTORS. Teacher may be able to realize that they have the ability to motivate and encourage students to read. STUDENTS. The researcher will help the students know their level of Reading Habits and for them to be aware to themselves if they have good and poor Reading Habits. PARENTS.
Parents may be able to realize that they have a certain influence to make their children read and make it one of their Habits. RESEARCHER. The whole process of the research will serve as a training on how to become an effective and efficient teacher. SCOPE AND DELIMINATION OF THE STUDY The research study will conduct to the TEACHER EDUCATION STUDENTS OFPSU URDANETA CAMPUS , URDANETA CITY PANGASINAN during Second Semester of A. Y. 2014-2015.
DEFENITION OF KEY TERMS The following terms are defined lexically and operationally to provide a common understanding of terms in the study. READING. In this study, it is thee cognitive process of understanding a written linguistic method. It also means the action or practice of a person who reads. HABIT. In this study, it is a tendency or disposition to act in a particular way. It also means an established custom, usually practice. READING HABITS. Reading Habits refers to the behaviour which express likeness of reading of individual types of reading and tastes of reading. (Sangkeo, 1999) In this study, it is the creation of a strong desire to read that continues throughout the student’s life.
LEVEL. It is a position on a real or imaginary scale of amount, quantity, extent or quality. As used in this study, it refers to the degree or standing of the TEACHER EDUCATION STUDENTS for their reading habits. CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents a brief discussion of relevant and selected literature and studies. This will give the researcher the needed insight and background for discussion and analysis of the finding in this study. It includes Literature and studies reviewed by the researcher which serves as guide and references for the paradigm of the study.
RELATED LITERATURE Reading is important for students in general in order to cope with new knowledge in a changing world and technological age. The ability to red is the hearth of self- education and lifelong learning. Reading according to Fatimayin and Lawa(2010), connotes the ability to read well not only English Language and literature text, but also newspaper, magazines, journal, periodical, etc. Reading is a key to a wealth of experience that links people in a way unlimited by distance or time.
It provides experience through which the individuals may expand his horizons, identify and develop his interest while gaining a deeper insight of himself, his fellow human beings and the world generally. Potter (2011) opines that reading fire’s children’s imagination and encourage quick learning as well as widens, expand horizons, and help reader learn about dimes. He further argues that it encourages imagination, curiously and the ability to handle complex ideas. Reading plays a vital role in any worthwhile efforts to learn English. It is also a tool for learning other subjects and a yardstick for measuring academic progress. It is also a through reading that educational objectives can be accomplished.
Above all, reading is related to other language skills. Bright and McGregor(1971:3) describe that it has the “ core of the English Language Syllabus” by explaining that the language acquisition of the large extent on reading. It is a gateway to academic success, that is the reason on its importance cannot be overstated. Reading makes way for a better understanding of one’s experience and it can be exciting voyage to self-discover ( Panigrahi and Panda, 1996: Eyre, 2005). According to Deverajan and Gray, as cited in Panigrahi and Panda (1996)0, reading influences the extent and accuracy of information as well as the attitudes, morals, belief, judgement and action of reading.
According to William S. Grey, reading influences the extent and accuracy of information as well as the attitudes, moral beliefs, judgments and action of readers. Books are one of the best tools for training and upbringing. A good book always has a salutary effect on the mind of a reader. It will elevate spirit and thoughts. It will augment his store of knowledge. It is possible that the reading of book might have a deeper impact on the minds of the readers than the other sources of acquiring knowledge.
Sometimes, reading brings about a revolutionary change in the outlook of a person. Reading is the basic foundation on which academic skills of an individual are built, and that has been verified by various studies time and again. Frequent reading is related to the development of sophisticated language structures; higher levels of comprehension, improved word analysis skills, and fluency in significant amounts of voluntary reading are associated with greater interest and skill development (Irving, International Reading Association, 2000).
According toChow & Chou, 2000, “a moderate amount of reading will lead to substantial vocabulary gains”. Also in the subject of vocabulary, Parry (1991) investigated how language learners acquire vocabulary. The subject in her study, whose vocabulary is limited, read very little. She concludes; “To establish a firm foundation for the vocabulary building to be done in academic courses, we should encourage our students to read as much as they can before they leave our classes” (Parry, 1991:649).
RELATED STUDIES Reading habit refers to the behaviour which express the likeness of reading of individual types of reading and tastes of reading ( Sangkaeo 1999). It is a pattern withwhich an individual organizes his or her reading. Similarly, Shen(2000) identifies reading habits, as how often, how much, and what student read. Researchers in the past decade have devoted efforts to examining learner’s reading habits( e. g. Mokhtari, and Sheorey, 1994).
With their endeavours, these researchers have discovered that reading habits are associated with student’s gender, age, educational background, academic performance and professional growth. A good reading habit is necessary for a healthy intellectual growth and play’s a very crucial role in enabling a person to achieve practical efficiency. Furthermore, an individual interest are determine to a considerable extent by the amount he will read and the intensity with which he will pursue his reading activity. By reading books, onegets confirmation or rejection of one’s own ideas, which makes one think more critically about right and wrong in a society.
Reading provides people with a sense of values which enable them to gradually to develop the greatest of all virtues, that is the ability to understand rather than condemn. Books can also be very comforting, especially at times when one doubt’s one’s self and one’s belief.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Behaviourist psychology of the 1950’s influenced the Traditional Bottom-up Approach to reading, which claimed learning was based upon “habit formation, brought about by the repeated association of a stimulus with a response” and language learning was characterized as a “response system that humans acquire through automatic conditioning processes,” where “some patterns of language are reinforced (rewarded) and others are not,” and “only those patterns reinforced by the community of language users will persist” (Omaggio 1993, 45-46).
Behaviorism became the basis of the audio-lingual method, which sought to form second language “habits” through drilling, repetition, and error correction.
The main method associated with the bottom-up approach to reading is known as phonics, which requires the learner to match letters with sounds in a defined sequence. According to this view, reading is a linear process by which readers decode a text word by word, linking the words into phrases and then sentences (Gray and Rogers, cited in Kucer 1987).
According to Samuels and Kamil (1988: 25), the emphasis on behaviorism treated reading as a word-recognition response to the stimuli of the printed words, where “little attempt was made to explain what went on within the recesses of the mind that allowed the human to make sense of the printed page”. In other words, textual comprehension involves adding the meanings of words to get the meanings of clauses (Anderson 1994). These lower level skills are connected to the visual stimulus, or print, and are consequently concerned with recognizing and recalling.
Like the audio-lingual teaching method, phonics emphasizes on repetition and on drills using the sounds that make up words. Information is received and processed beginning with the smallest sound units, and proceeded to letter blends, words, phrases, and sentences. Thus, novice readers acquire a set of hierarchically ordered sub-skills that sequentially build toward comprehension ability. Having mastered these skills, readers are viewed as experts who comprehend what they read. Another theory closely related to top-down processing called schema theory also had a major impact on reading instruction.
It describes in detail how the background knowledge of the learner interacts with the reading task and illustrates how a student’s knowledge and previous experience with the world is crucial to deciphering a text. The ability to use this schemata, or background knowledge, plays a fundamental role in one’s trial to comprehend a text.
Schema theory is based on the notion that past experiences lead to the creation of mental frameworks that help a reader make sense of new experiences. Smith (1994: 14) calls schemes the “extensive representations of more general patterns or regularities that occur in our experience”. For instance one’s generic scheme of an airplane will allow him to make sense of airplane he has not previously filed with. This means that past experiences will be related to new experiences, which may include the knowledge of “objects, situations, and events as well as knowledge of procedures for retrieving, organizing and interpreting information” (Kucer, 1987: 31).
Anderson (1994: 469) presents research showing that recall of information in a text is affected by the reader’s schemata and explains that “a reader comprehends a message when he is able to bring to mind a schema that gives account of the objects and events described in the message”. Comprehension is the process of “activating or constructing a schema that provides a coherent explanation of objects and events mentioned in a discourse” (Anderson, 1994: 473). For Anderson and Pearson (1988: 38), comprehension is the interaction between old and new information.
They emphasize: “To say that one has comprehended a text is to say that she has found a mental ‘home’ for the information in the text, or else that she has modified an existing mental home in order to accommodate that new information”. Therefore, a learner’s schemata will restructure it to accommodate new information as that information is added to the system (Omaggio, 1993). According to Block (1992), there is now no more debate on “whether reading is a bottom-up, language-based process or a top-down, knowledge-based process. ” It is also no more problematic to accept the influence of background knowledge on readers.
Research has gone even further to define the control executed by readers on their trial to understand a text. This control is what Block has referred to as meta-cognition. In the context of reading, meta-cognition involves thinking about what one is doing while reading. Strategic readers do not only sample the text, make hypotheses, confirm or reject them, and make new hypotheses while reading. They also involve many activities along the process of reading, whose stages can be divided into three, i. e. before reading, while reading, and after reading.
The activities the readers involve before reading are to identify the purpose of the reading, identify the form or type of the text. In the second stage (while reading), they think about the general character and features of the form or type of the text— such as trying to locate a topic sentence and follow supporting details toward a conclusion, project the author’s purpose for writing the text, choose, scan, or read in detail, make continuous predictions about what will occur next based on information obtained earlier, prior knowledge, and conclusions obtained within the previous stages.
Finally, in the last stage, they attempt to form a summary, conclude, or make inference of what was read. PARADIGM OF THE STUDY This study shown in Figure 1 in the study next page shows the direction of the study. The Paradigm further shows the demographic profile of the Teacher Education Students. Such as age, sex, parents educational attainment, and family income also respondents with regards to their level of reading habits.
Figure 1. Paradigm of the Study The Teacher Education Students Profile in Terms of: Age Sex Parent’s Educational Attainment Family income Level of Reading Habits of Teacher Education Students Age Sex Parent’s Educational Attainment Family Income Figure 1. A paradigm showing the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of their age, sex, parents educational attainment and family income as well as the levels of reading habits of the respondents. Chapter III METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the research methodology.
This contains the research design used, the subjects of the study, sample population, data-gathering instrument, datagathering procedures, and the statistical treatment of the data. Research Design The researcher made use of the Descriptive Survey Method. We will this method through giving our questionnaires to our respondents which are the Teacher-Education students in their most convenient time.
The use of the method is to justify by the purpose of the researcher to gather information about the said topic. Respondents The respondents of the study were sixty (60) students. In every section of the Teacher-Education Department of Pangasinan State University from first year BEED and BSED to third year. A random sampling of students in every section was made. Table 1 Presents the distribution of Respondents Course/Section Number of Respondents BEED I 10 BEED II 10 BEED III 10 BSED I 10 BSED II 10 BSED III 10 Total number or Respondents 60 Ten (10) students from every section/course will be select.
The chosen respondents are cooperative and willing to answer the questionnaire. All the respondents in the study will answer the questionnaires in order to find and determine their level of reading habits. Sample Population The researchers will be using random sampling since we are only limited from first year to third year students. Random sampling is the selection of a random sample; each element of the population has an equal chance of being select. The researchers will select the students that belong to the desired course and year level. Data Gathering Instrument The main data-gathering instrument was the two (2) set of survey questionnaires.
The first part is intended to gather Teacher – Education students’ background information and the next part is a five-point Likert-Scale Type questionnaire. The questionnaire consisting of items under reading habits that requires the students to rate themselves in terms of scale: 5 – I strongly disagree, 4 – I disagree, 3 – I partly agree, 2 – I agree, 1 – I strongly agree. The researchers made use of the five-point scale likert type test as the main data gathering instrument. The test is made up of 27 questions to be answered by the respondents. Each questions as well as its corresponding options will explain thoroughly.
All the options given are correct except that they differ on the degree on how the respondents answered the questions. Data Gathering Procedure The researchers will personally administer and retrieve the questionnaires to the respondents in the Teacher-Education Department. Assistance from their friends will seek in the administration and the retrieval of the questionnaires in other sections. Data from the questionnaires will be tally and tabulate for interpretation. Statistical Treatment of Data For the profile of the students of this research study, will tally and tabulate in the frequency (f) and percentage (p) table using the formula shown below.
P= f/n (100%) Where, P = percentage equivalent f = frequency n = total number of respondents The mean use in describing the language acquisition will determined using the scale below: Mean Scale Rating Verbal Interpretation 4. 20 – 5. 00 Very High 3. 40 – 4. 19 High 2. 60 – 3. 39 Average 1. 80 – 2. 59 Low 1. 00 – 1. 79 Very Low To be able to answer the problem number 2, the Weighted Average Point (WAP) was employed to determine the reading habits level of the Teacher – Education students of the Pangasinan State University – Urdaneta Campus. The following formula used to compare for the Weighted Average Point (WAP).
WAP = (f5x5) + (f4x4) + (f3x3) + (f2x2) + (f1x1) N Where: N = total number of respondents WAP = f5 = number of the responses who answered “I strongly disagree. ” f4 = number of the response who answered “I disagree. ” f3 = number of the response who answered “I partly agree. ” f2 = number of the response who answered “I agree. ” f1 = number of the response who answered “I strongly agree. ”
Pangasinan State University Urdaneta Campus Urdaneta City, Pangasinan March, 2014 Dear fellow Education Student in Pangasinan State University, May I request you to kindly fill up the attached questionnaire in connection with my special problem entitled Level of Reading Habits of the Teacher-Education Students of Pangasinan State University year 2014-2015.
This will fulfil the requirements for the completion of our subject Introduction to Research. Thank you very much for your kind and cooperation. Very sincerely yours, Philip Anthony M. Cabato BEED II Direction: Please supply the needed information by filling up the given blanks or checking your answer to the questions asked. Name: Sex: Age: Birthday: Course/Section: _____________________ Parents: Father: Mother: 1. Educational Attainment: a. Father: Elementary Secondary.
Vocational College b. Mother: Elementary Secondary Vocational College 2. Occupation: a. Father: Manual Vocational Technical Professional *manual *vocational *technical *professional – Laundering – Dressmaker/ Tailor – Technician – Lawyer -Teacher – Carpenter – Beautician/ Barber – Mechanic – Doctor -Employee – Baker – Driver – Electrician – Nurse – Housekeep – Midwife – Mason – Dentist – Janitor – Engineer – Farming – Architect – Labourer a. Mother: Manual Vocational Technical Professional *manual *vocational *technical *professional – Laundering – Dressmaker/ Tailor – Technician – Lawyer -Teacher.
– Carpenter – Beautician/ Barber – Mechanic – Doctor -Employee – Baker – Driver – Electrician – Nurse – Housekeep – Midwife – Mason – Dentist – Janitor – Engineer – Farming – Architect – Labourer 3. Family Income: a. Father: _____ Low (P7, 000 & below) _____ Average (P8, 000-P10, 000) _____ High (P11, 000 & above) b. Mother: _____ Low (P7,000& below) _____ Average (P8,000-P10,000) _____ High (P11,000& above) Self- Assessment Questionnaire for Reading Habits Directions: For each of the following statements, put a check mark on the appropriate column that corresponds to your answer. SCALE RATING 1 I strongly agree 2 I agree.
3 I partly agree 4 I disagree 5 I strongly disagree Statements 1 2 3 4 5 1. When I read books, I feel happy. 2. When I have to read something, I feel anxious. 3. Reading books helps a person learn a language. 4. I read only when I need to find some information. 5. I would rather see a play in a theatre than read the play in a book. 6. I enjoy reading things on the Internet. 7. I enjoyed reading at school. 8. I didn’t enjoy reading at school. 9. I have many books at home. 10. I don’t have much free time for reading. 11. Reading teaches me a lot about life and about people. 12. I get bored in my free time if I don’t
have a book to read. 13. I learn more from TV than from reading books. 14. If you want to be well- educated, you must read books. 15. Reading books teaches you things that help you make decisions. 16. I would rather spend money on books than on clothes. 17. I read books only when my teacher tells me I should. 18. I think reading books will be helpful for me in my life. 19. I don’t think reading books will be helpful for me in my life. 20. When I don’t understand something I am reading, it makes me feel less confident about myself.
21. I want to be like my friends, and they don’t read. (If your friends like reading, don’t answer this question. ) 22. I had a teacher or teachers who enjoyed reading and made me feel I would like to read. 23. My parents encourage/have always encouraged me to read. 24. I think books are too expensive for me to buy. 25. I have a quiet place where I can read undisturbed.
26. At University, I had a quiet place where I could read and study undisturbed. 27. I don’t think books will be important fifty years from now. Bibliography (http://balaibahasa. upi. edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/01_Noorizah-R eading_habit-edited. pdf ) (http://www. buzzle. com/articles/importance-of-reading. html).