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Reading Comprehension Essay

Introduction The main objective of this study is to know the common problems of students in reading comprehension specifically the Grade 7 section A students of San Roque National High School. Reading comprehension is one of the problems faced by learners nowadays. Goodman defined reading as “ a receptive psycholinguistic process wherein the actor uses strategies to create meaning from text” (Goodman, 1998). In a classroom setting, reading is one of the effective ways for learners to catch up with the lesson at ease.

But in some cases, students find difficulties in the reading process and cause them to understand a certain text. Anderson and Freebody (1981, 1983) stated that vocabulary knowledge of a certain individual makes an important contribution to reading comprehension. Therefore, this is also the fact that makes the students of San Roque National High School (Grade 7) find difficulties in reading comprehension. Walker (1946) stated that “reading is an active process in which reader shift between sources of information (what they know and what the text says).

The means of interpreting the text and responding to what they have read will be the factior also of the common problems in reading comprehension of San Roque National High School. The coginitive ability in reading comprehension contributes to the factors which may help the students to overcome the problem of reading comprehension of Grade 7 students in San Roque National High School. Statement of the Problem Specifically it sought to find answers to the following questions: 1. What are the difficulties in reading comprehension of Grade 7 section A students of San Roque National High School according to the following factors:

a.Gender b. Age c. Family Income 2. What are the causes of reading comprehension difficulties of Grade 7 section A students of San Roque National High School according to the following factors: a. Gender b. Age c. Family Income 3. This study will help the researchers to determine the ways to overcome the ways to ovcrcome the difficulties of reading comprehension of Grade 7 section A students of San Roque National High School according to the following factors: a. Gender b. Age c. Family Income Basic Assumptions 1.

This study will help the researchers to determine the difficulties in reading comprehension of Grade 7 section A students of San Roque National High School according to gender, age and family income. 2. This study will help the researchers to determine causes of difficulties in reading comprehension of Grade 7 section Astudents of San Roque National High School according to gender, age and family income. 3. This study will help the researches to determine the ways to overcome the difficulties in reading comprehension of Grade 7 section A students of San Roque National High School according to gender, age and family income.

Significance of the Study The writers believe that the result of this study will be of great importance to the persons involved in the field of education such as: The Students. This research will help the students be aware of their problems in reading and find solutions. The Teachers. This research will guide the teachers on how to help their students understand their reading problems and provide them solutions. The Future Researchers. This will serve as a source of information and reference on the related field of their studies. Scope and Delimitation of the Study.

This study is concerned on the common problems in reading comprehension of Grade 7 students in San Roque National High School, academic year 2013-2014. Grade 7 section A. Definition of Terms Difficulty. The quality or state of being difficult. Reading Comprehension. Understanding what is being read. Comprehension. The art of understanding. Family Income. The amount of such gain received in a period of time of a family. Economic Status. The condition of the person in relation to consumptions of goods and services. Receptive Psycholinguistic Process. Process wherein the actor uses strategies to create meaning from text.

Vocabulary. all the words used by or known to a particular person or group, or contained in a language as a whole. Interpreting. to establish or explain the meaning or significance of something. Responding. to act or do something in reaction to something else. Cognitive ability. relating to the process of acquiring knowledge by the use of reasoning, intuition, or perception. ENDNOTES Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Related Literature Reading comprehension is the capacity to identify and understand meanings communicated by the text.

Once an individual understand the different letters that create words, and they can use their knowledge to identify words and then comprehend a message that a compilation of words will make. Walker (1946) explained that reading is an active process in which readers shift between sources of information, elaborate meaning and strategies, and check their interpretation and use of the social context to focus their response. Wardhaugh (1974) seems to agree that reading is an active, productive, and cognitive activity. He also pointed that reading involves an active search for information and interaction with the text.

Anderson (1981) and Freebody (1983) said that vocabulary knowledge of a certain individual makes an important contribution to reading comprehension. In connection with the idea of Anderson (1981) and Freebody (1983), Hirsh and Nation (1992) and Laufer (1989) also stated that in order to gather greater vocabulary knowledge, reacting with the use of L2 (second language) should be acquired, Villa (2002) suggested that the student must be provided with basic skills in the use of the language as a tool for learning and for communicative competencies in business, science and technology.

Related Studies Reviews of studies in the area of problems in reading comprehension revealed that researchers in this area concentrated on: (a) the “simple review” of reading, (b) strategy of using standardized test in reading accuracy, (c) causes of poor reading comprehension. Hoover and Gough’s analysis (1990) centered on the “simple review” of reading. Reading comprehension comprises two sets of skills, those concerned with decoding linguistic comprehension are necessary and neither skill on its own is sufficient if successful reading comprehension is to follow.

Nation and Snowling’s study (1998) found that poor comprehenders read nonwords as quickly as control children. This experimental finding is confirmed by observations that poor comprehenders perform at age-appropriate levels on standardized tests of nonword reading accuracy. Nation and colleagues have used the strategy of matching poor comprehenders to control children on nonword reading. Another study conducted by Perfetti (1985) found that poor comprehension is a consequence of inadequate processing, lack of knowledge, or some combination of both processing and knowledge-based weaknesses.

Synthesis-of-the-state of the Art The synthesis-of-the-state of the art presents the differences and similarities of the previous and the present studies. The present and previous studies have differences in the area of provlems in reading comprehension that the researchers studied. The study of Perfetti (1985) focused on the causes of poor reading comprehension. The study of Nation and Snowling (1998) focused on poor comprehenders on nonword reading. And Hoover and Gough’s analysis (1990) focused on the reading skills.

Almost all studies identified the problems encountered by the respondents, the most prevalent one was the problem in reading comprehension. Walker (1946), Wardhaugh (1974), Anderson (1981), Freebody (1983) and Villa (2002) studies focused more on the contribution of reading comprehension to the individuals. Walker (1946) explained that reading is an active process that was agreed by Wardhaugh (1974) and said that reading is an activity, specifically, productive and cognitive activity and that reading involves an active search for information and interaction with the text.

Anderson (1981) and Freebody (1983) focused on the vocabulary knowledge that makes an important contribution to reading comprehension that was seconded by Hirsh and Nation 1992 and Laufer (1989) that in order to gather vocabulary knowledge, the use of L2 as a second language should be required. While Villa (2002) that students must be provided with basic skills in the use of language as a tool for learning and for common competencies in business, science and technology.

It may be observed that in the discussion of the studies stated above, in reading comprehension the thinking capabilities of students are a great factor in conducting the study. Theoretical Framework G identifies three main theories of reading comprehension. These theories are: Based on the schema theory, depending on how extensive their “files” become, their degree of reading comprehension may vary. Schema is the organized knowledge that is already has about people, places, things, and events. Each schema is “filed” in an individual compartment and stored there.

In attempting to comprehend reading materials, students can relate this new information to the existing information they have compartmentalized in their minds, adding it to these “files” for future use. The mental modes can be thought of as a mind movie created in one’s head, based on the reading context. This model is reconstructed or updated to reflect the new circumstances as the situation changes, but the items important to the main character are kept in the foreground. The proposition theory involves the reader constructing a main idea or macrostructure as they process the text.

These main ideas are organized in a hierarchical fashion with the most important things given the highest priority to be memorized. Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework is based on the systems approach, which shows the interplay of the four major elements such as the Input, Output and Feedback. Input is made up of the profile of the 30 students of Grade 7 in San Roque National High School who serve as the respondents of this study in terms of age, genders, family income and the common problems in reading comprehension of the respondents.

Process is the distribution and retrieval of survey questionnaire, analysis and interpretation of data. Output is the determining of the problems in reading comprehension of Grade 7 students in San Roque National High School. Feedback is the response and goal of the research which determine the common problems in reading comprehension of Grade 7 students in San Roque National High School. FEEDBACK ENDNOTES Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY Research Design The researchers used the descriptive method in analyzing and revealing the common problems in reading comprehension.

The causes of reading comprehension difficulties and the ways to overcome the difficulties in reading comprehension of Grade 7-Ruby student in San Roque National High School S. Y. 2013-2014. The Subject The respondents of this study were the Grade 7-Ruby students of San Roque National High School. The Research Instruments The researchers used a questionnaire to determine and collect accurate information that identify the common problems in reading comprehension of Grade 7-Ruby students of San Roque National High School, and the possible ways to overcome the difficulty.

Data Gathering Procedure Survey questionnaire was given twice to the students for the dry run and finalization. The data’s and information from the survey questionnaire will be used in the summary of the study. Statistical Treatment of Data To facilitate the analysis, interpretation and the presentation of data, the appropriate statistical tools were chosen and applied. In this study, frequency, percentage distribution and ranking were used. Below is the formula used in computing the percentage. P(%) = f/n x 100 Wherein: P = unknown f = frequency n = ENDNOTES CHAPTER 4.

COMMON PROBLEMS IN READING COMPREHENSION OF GRADE 7 SECTION RUBY STUDENTS IN SAN ROQUE NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL This chapter dealt with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data gathered through the use of a survey questionnaire. The discussion and analysis of data are focused on the common problems in Reading Comprehension according to Gender, Age and Family income, causes of the problem, the ways to overcome the problems and same with the profile of the respondents. The respondents of this study were the Grade 7 section Ruby students. The coverage of the study was extended to thirty-five respondents.

I. Profile of the Respondents This part described the profile of the respondents in terms of Age, Gender and Family Income. Table 1. 1 Age of the Respondents Age Frequency Percentage % Rank 12 17 49 1 13 16 46 2 14 1 2. 5 3 15 0 0 – 16 0 0 – 17 1 2. 5 3 Total 35 100% Table 1. 1 shows the age of the respondents and range from twelve to seventeen years old. It could be noted from the table that 17 out of 35 respondents or 49% belong to the age twelve, ranked first; 16 or 46% belong to age thirteen, ranked second;1 or 5% belong to age fourteen and seventeen, ranked third.

It is implied that most of the students belong to the age bracket of 12 years old. Table 1. 2 Gender of the Respondents Gender Frequency Percentage Rank Male 14 40% 2 Female 21 60% 1 Total 35 100% Table 1. 2 shows the gender of the respondents. It could be noted from the table that 40% belong to male respondents and 60% belong to the female. It is implied that most of the students are females. Table 1. 3 Monthly Family Income of the Respondents Monthly Income Frequency Percentage % Rank 500-5000 Php 12 34. 4 % 2 5000-15 000 Php 17 48. 6 % 1 15 000-25 000 Php 4 11. 4 % 3.

25 000-30 000 Php 2 5. 7% 4 Total 35 100 % Table 1. 3 shows the monthly family income of the respondents ranging from the starting amount of 500. 00 Php (Five Hundred Pesos) to 30 000. 00 Php (Thirty Thousand Pesos). It could be noted from the table that 34. 3 % belong to the respondents who’s family’s income ranges from 5000-15 000 Php ranking to the 1st place; 34. 3% belong to the respondents who’s family’s income ranges from 500-5000 Php; ranking the 2nd place, 11. 4 belong to the respondents who’s familys’s income ranges from 15 000-25 000 Php; ranking the 3rd place; and 5.

7 belongs to the respondents family’s income ranges from 25 000-30 000; ranking 4th place. It is implied that majority of the respondents belong to 5000-15 000 Php monthly family income. II. Difficulties in Reading Comprehension a. Age Table 1. 4 Difficulties Most Difficult More Difficult Less Difficult Least Difficult f % f % f % f % Difficulties in understanding 2 5. 71% 16 45. 71% 16 45. 71% 1 2. 9% Difficulties in understanding unfamiliar words 2 5. 71% 19 54. 29% 11 31. 4% 3 8. 6% Difficulties in finding reading materials 2 5. 71% 9 45. 71% 21 60% 3 8. 6% Total 5. 7% 41. 9% 45. 7% 6. 7% Table 1.

4 shows the age of the respondents according to their difficulties in reading comprehension. It could be noted from the table that 5. 7% of the respondents say that understanding sentences is the most difficult; 5. 7 % says that it is more difficult another 45. 71% of the respondents says that it is less difficult and 2. 9% says that it is least difficult. b. Gender Table 1. 5 Difficulties Most Difficult More Difficult Less Difficult Least Difficult f % f % f % f % Difficulties in understanding 7 20% 4 11. 4% 21 60% 3 8. 6% Difficulties in understanding unfamiliar words 2 5. 71% 20 57. 1% 10 28. 6% 3 8.

6% Difficulties in finding reading materials 3 8. 6% 7 20% 18 51. 4% 7 20% Total 11. 4% 29. 5% 46. 7% 12. 4% c. Family Income Table 1. 6 Difficulties Most Difficult More Difficult Less Difficult Least Difficult f % f % f % f % Difficulties in understanding 3 8. 6% 9 25. 7% 19 54. 3% 4 11. 4% Difficulties in understanding unfamiliar words 8 22. 9% 11 31. 4% 13 37. 1% 3 8. 6% Difficulties in finding reading materials 3 8. 6% 12 34. 3% 15 42. 9% 5 14. 3% Total 13. 4% 30. 5% 44. 8% 11. 4% III. Causes of Reading Comprehension Difficulties a. Age Table 1. 7 Causes 12 13 14 15 16 17 f % f % f % f % f % f % a.

Lack of reading materials 4 23. 5% 6 37. 5% 1 100% 0 0 0 0 0 11. 4% b. Cannot afford to buy reading materials 9 52. 9% 11 68. 8% 0 0% 0 0 0 0 0 8. 6% c. No time for reading 9 52. 9% 3 18. 8% 0 0% 0 0 0 0 0 14. 3% d. no interest in reading 3 17. 6% 3 18. 8% 1 100% 0 0 0 0 0 e. Exposure to computers rather than books 3 17. 6% 4 25% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f. visual impairment 1 11. 8% 4 25% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 g. spend more time in watching T. V. 14 82. 4% 13 81. 3% 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 25% Total 17 37% 16 39. 3% 1 28. 6 0 0 0 0 Table 1. 7 shows the age bracket of the respondents according to the causes of reading comprehension difficulties.

It could be noted from the table that the respondents who are 12 years old says that spending more time in watching television is the number 1 cause of their reading comprehension difficulties with 82. 4 %. For the respondents age 13 with 81. 3% says that spending more time watching television is the number 1 cause of their reading comprehension difficulties. 100% from their age of 17 stated that spending more time in watching television is the cause of their reading comprehension difficulties. None of the respondents are aligned in the age 15-16 years old. b. Gender Table 1. 8 MALE

CAUSES f % Rank a. Lack of reading materials 5 35. 7 3rd b. Cannot afford to buy reading materials 7 50 2nd c. No time for reading 5 35. 7 3rd d. no interest in reading 5 35. 7 3rd e. Exposure to computers rather than books 3 21. 4 4th f. visual impairment 0 0 g. spend more time in watching T. V. 11 78. 6 1st Total 36 36. 7 FEMALE CAUSES f % Rank a. Lack of reading materials 6 28. 6 4th b. Cannot afford to buy reading materials 11 52. 4 2nd c. No time for reading 9 42. 9 3rd d. no interest in reading 3 14. 3 6th e. Exposure to computers rather than books 4 19. 0 5th f. visual impairment.

6 28. 6 4th g. spend more time in watching T. V. 17 8. 0 1st Total 21 38. 1 Table 1. 8 shows the gender of the respondents according to the causes of reading comprehension difficulties. It could be noted from the table that 78. 6% of males says that spending more time is watching the females says that spending more time in watching television is the cause of their reading comprehension difficulty. It is implied that females are more close to the addressed on that cause in reading comprehension difficulty which is spending more time in watching television. c. Family Income Table 1. 9.


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