Physiological responses: damaged tissue, eg primary damage response, healing response, the clotting mechanism; the importance of scar tissue control in the re-modelling process; specific to injury, eg sprain/ strain (signs and symptoms of first, second and third degree), haematomas (inter/intra)
Psychological responses: response to injury, eg anger, anxiety, depression, frustration, isolated from team mates; response to treatment and rehabilitation, eg anxiety, frustration, need for motivation, use of goal setting
Criteria P3 and P4 aim to address the issue of occurrence of sports injuries and the resulting symptoms, both physiologically and psychologically, as identified within the related content of the unit. If an explanation of both issues is detailed and contextualised sufficiently to the concept of sports injury then it is possible that grading criterion M2 and D1 (analysis) may also be achieved. It may be possible to assess this via the booklet mentioned previously, or for learners to give a presentation on the issues, supported by a tutor witness statement/observation record to confirm achievement.
Describe, explain and analyse the Physiological and Psychological responses common to sports injuries
INJURY: Broken leg , (tibia and fibula)
1. David Buust
David Buust is a retired player who used to play for Coventry city football club from 1992-1996 he made 50 appearances for Coventry before getting tackled in the game against Manchester united two minutes into the game. Bussts injuries were so bad that there was a risk of his leg being amputated. But contacted MRSA which caused further damage to the muscle and tissue in his leg. After having 26 operations he was advised to retire by doctors.
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES: (What are they)
How the body responds when injury occurs it aims to repair and protect damages bones , muscles and tendons from further injury. For example if you had a cut it wold be the time it takes to heal.
PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSES (What are they)
The mental response of how an athlete deals with their injury and the way they respond to treatment and how the athlete copes with stress and possible depression that could result from the injury.
Describe, explain and analyse:
A tissue can be damaged in many ways for example a athlete could be running and damage some tissue when they are running. The will then experience symptoms such as pain in the area where the tear is and the area would become red and could swell. An athlete could also damage tissue by overworking a particular area in the body for example if a person was in the gym and they overworked their biceps they could damage their tissue in their arm. Then they would have to rest until the tissue repairs itself. A damaged tissue would be treated by the RICE treatment method.
David Busst response
David Busst damaged his tissue in his right leg in a premier league match against Manchester united while playing for Coventry city on the 8th April 1996. The injury occurred when Busst went up for a corner and was sandwiched between to players who tackled him this left him with the bone in his leg ripping through his sock and effectively splitting his leg in two. This caused the Manchester united goalkeeper to throw up on the pitch. Busst`s tissue in his right leg was damaged even more while in hospital as he contracted MRSA which meant he risked having his leg amputated. This would mean that David Busst would have been in a lot of pain in the first few weeks of having the injury. The symptoms that David Busst would have had around his leg is redness and his leg being very painful to touch.
The clotting mechanism
Describe, explain and analyse:
The blood clotting mechanism starts to work when we bleed. The blood clots start the healing process. Platelets are released by a chemical response
when trauma such as a cut or a graze causes blood loss. The platelets clot quickly to as they stick to the blood vessels as the blood is sticky because of the platelets. The clotting mechanism is important as it is one of the parts of the healing phase.
David Busst response
The clotting mechanism would have started the moment David Busst broke his fibula and tibia. It would have started again to help him recover from his MRSA infection as it damaged his muscle and tissue so the blood clots from the blood mechanism would of got to work as quick as they could on David Bussts injury to limit the amount of injury that he would of suffered.
This is blood clots forming
The importance of scar tissue
Describe, explain and analyse:
The scar tissue restores the tissue on the exact spot of the injury for example if you had a deep cut like the diagram below where there has been a deep cut to the arm and the tissue has been restored as close a possible to its original state. Which leaves in a scar where the cut happened. Scar tissue will form as soon as an injury takes place . The repair phase occurs after a few hours of the injury occurring.
David Buust response
For example David Busst would have a significant scar tissue from where he broke his fibula and tibula as when he did break those bones they ripped through his skin meaning it was a compound break. It is likely that he would have a scar from where they bone went through the skin and a scar from where his leg was re straightened and put into his leg again. For example he may have a scar similar to the scar tissue in the diagram below but it may be very deep due to the extent of his injury.
http://www.pennmedicine.org/encyclopedia/em_PrintPresentation.aspx?gcid=100098&ptid=3 The diagram highlights that the arm has been cut but has heal to the best of its ability.
Specific to injury: (Haematomas (inter/intra)181 177 Describe, explain and analyse:
There are two types of haematoma. The first type intramuscular haematoma this is where bleeding occurs within the compartment of the muscle but does not seep into any surrounding tissue. The second type intramuscular haematoma is where blood escapes into surrounding areas such as muscles or tissue and stays in that muscle or part of the body.
David Bussts response
David Busst would have had a Haematoma around the same size as the Haematoma in the diagram below as the injury was so severe it caused a lot of swelling and bruising causing a lot of internal bleeding as his leg was broken compundly meaning that blood would of seeped out of his leg meaning that he had a intramuscular haematoma since he was bleeding out and also a intramuscular haematoma as there would have been significant haematoma in his muscles. Which would of made it very uncomfortable for him to bear during the early stages of his injury.
http://ic.steadyhealth.com/signs_and_treatment_for_hematoma.html David Buust would of suffered similar Hematoma due to the size of his injury.
Psychological responses 177/178
Describe, explain and analyse the response to injury, treatment and rehabilitation, including; anger; anxiety, depression; frustration; isolation, need for motivation and goal setting. You could use a famous sports person and address all these issues from their perspective.
When injury occurs the psychological response is divided into three stages. The first stage is when the injury actually occurs the second stage is then the recovery period where the injured individual begins rehab to get them back into sport. Then finally the third stage is where the athlete starts training and is able to play their sport again competively.
1. When David Busst experienced his injury the first thoughts he would of experienced the trauma of having such a horrific injury being inflicted on him and the shock of actually seeing his leg in a bad state and he would be very scared as he would be concerned as they injury was very serious and career threatening. David would also be very angry with the players that tackled him as the fact both players went for the same leg (as seen in the picture below) causing a serious injury. He would also be very frustrated that the injury has occurred to him since he it happened in a top flight game where he would have looked to show off his ability.
http://www.taringa.net/posts/deportes/16564778/Un-tipo-con-mala-suerte-David-Busst.html Due to the nature of his injury David Busst would have been very traumatised by the state of his leg and obviously worried about his future in football.
2. The second stage is the recovery period this would have been very lengthy for David Busst due to the severity of his injury it his rehab would have been around 6 months to make sure that he was in the right frame of mind to try and get back into football. He will be scared and anxious as he had little chance of making a full comeback to football meaning that if he didn`t his career would be over. David Busst would have been of been isolated due to the fact that his team mates were training and he wasn`t. He could of become depressed while waiting to get back into football.As he was waiting on the sidelines Stage three
3. This is where the player makes their comeback into the sport for example a footballer would make their recover back to football by training with the team and then playing for the reserve team and then being eased on by the manager of the team by playing as a substitute then starting the game the following week. David Busst would have lacked motivation to get into football as he knew that there was little chance of him making a full comeback to due to severity of his injury.
When making his full comeback David Buust was approached by his doctor and advised to retire as because of the injury he suffered was so severe he would of risked not walking unaided again as the injury made his the leg very weak. There would have been goals for him to slowly achieve if the injury wasn’t as bad but since he was at risk of becoming disabled he retired so he could save the use of his leg. When he retired Coventry would had a psychiatrist helping me through coming to terms with his career being over and helping him avoid depression and help plan his future after football.