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# Questions to be Graded Essay

1.The researchers analyzed the data they collected as though it were at what level of measurement?

a.Nominal
b.Ordinal
c.Interval/ratio
d.Experimental

2.What was the mean posttest empowerment score for the control group? Answer: 97.12

3.Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the experimental group. Was this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer. Answer: The mean baseline depression score is 14.00 and the posttest is 13.36 with a difference of 0.64.There is a slight amount of depression after the tools they were using and research was completed but was not enough of a difference to make an impact decision regarding if the strategies were truly effective. Patients were less depressed after the research.

4.Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the control group. Do these scores strengthen or weaken the validity of the research results? Provide a rationale for your answer. Answer: It was found that the baseline and posttest for depression of the control group remained the same at 10.4 and these scores strengthen the validity because only the experimental group showed a positive change in this experiment.

5.Which group’s test scores had the least amount of variability or dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer. Answer: The group with the least amount of variability was the experimental groups post test empowerment score because it showed the least amount of dispersion. The experimental groups SD post test score was only 7.28.

6.Did the empowerment variable or self-care self-efficacy variable demonstrate the greatest amount of dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer. Answer: The group with the greatest amount of dispersion was the self-care self-efficacy variable group with a baseline SD of 14.88. The empowerment baselines result was 9.19. For the post test, the self-care self-efficacy SD was 13.55 and the empowerments SD was 7.28.

7.The mean ( ) is a measure of CENTRAL TENDENCY of a distribution while the SD is a measure of DISPERSION of its scores. Both and SD are DESCRIPTIVE statistics.

8.What was the mean severity for renal disease for the research subjects? What was the dispersion or variability of the renal disease severity scores? Did the severity scores vary significantly between the control and the experimental groups? Is this important? Provide a rationale for your answer. Answer: The research sample consisted of 50 hemodialysis patients and the mean severity for renal disease was found to be 6.74. The dispersion of the disease severity score was 2.97.

The severity scores did vary, and the study results state that there was a significant difference in the improvement of empowerment strategies than with the control group patients, and the results suggest that empowerment techniques might have an important role for patients in self management of end stage renal disease. The study suggested that providing patients with education in empowerment interventions will positively impact an end stage renal disease patient’s outcome and hopefully maximize their well being and health.

9.Which variable was least affected by the empowerment program? Provide a rationale for your answer. Answer: The depression variable was found to be least affected by this empowerment program because it showed the largest differences from the baseline to posttest with a score of 0.64 decreases.

10.Was it important for the researchers to include the total means and SDs for the study variables in Table 2 to promote the readers’ understanding of the study results? Provide a rationale for your answer. Answer: It was important for the researchers to include the total means and the standard deviations in the study variable table. It truly did give a beneficial visual to viewers like myself and helped me better understand the results of the study. It was able to clearly show which groups had the most increases as well as decreases in this study.

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