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After the lecture Tutorials and your learning Reading in your study 2. 8. 1 Reading to understand or comprehend 2. 8. 2 Reading for critical comment Checklist for studying faculty units and courses 13 14 14 15 16 16 Chapter 3 The research process: A basic guide 3. 1 The research process 3. 1. 1 Step 1: Understand the assignment topic/question(s) 3. 1. 2 Step 2: Decide what sort of information you need to complete the assignment 3. 1. 3 Step 3: Decide where to look for this information 3. 1. 4 Step 4: Develop and use a search strategy for database searching 3. 1.

5 Step 5: Evaluate the information found and revise the plan 3. 1. 6 Step 6: Presentation 3. 1. 7 Step 7: Final evaluation Using the Internet for research 3. 2. 1 Some further tips for productive Internet research 17 17 17 17 18 18 20 22 22 23 23 3. 2 Chapter 4 Academic writing skills 4. 1 4. 2 4. 3 4. 4 Characteristics of successful writing 4. 1. 1 Responding to the task Exam question, Accounting and Finance 4. 2. 1 Initial analysis, key terms and directions Structuring your writing clearly 4. 3. 1 Writing structure Forming and expressing your perspective on the task 4. 4. 1 “Crystallised response” 4.

4. 2 Plan the response Supporting your perspective 4. 5. 1 Paragraph structure 4. 5. 2 Use of references Presenting a consistent and logical response Expressing your ideas clearly 4. 7. 1 Formal academic language 4. 7. 2 Some other features of academic language Checklist for academic writing skills 25 25 25 27 27 27 28 29 29 30 31 31 32 33 33 34 34 36 4. 5 4. 6 4. 7 4. 8 Chapter 5 Writing essays 5. 1 5. 2 5. 3 5. 4 Analyse the task Synthesise your information Plan the essay Reference the sources of information 37 37 37 37 38 Chapter 6 Writing a literature review 6. 1 6. 2 6. 3 6.

4 The nature of a literature review Procedure for completing a literature review Writing the literature review Checklist for a literature review 39 39 40 40 41 Chapter 7 Report writing 7. 1 The process 7. 1. 1 Identify the purpose of the report 7. 1. 2 Identify the readers and their needs 7. 1. 3 Research the topic 7. 1. 4 Outline the report 7. 1. 5 Write the draft 7. 1. 6 Edit the draft 7. 1. 7 The finished product 7. 2 Report presentation and layout 7. 2. 1 Structure of a report 7. 3 Report writing checklist 42 42 42 42 42 43 43 43 44 44 44 46 Chapter 8 Case study method 8. 1 8. 2 Some general issues Problem solving case format.

49 49 49 Chapter 9 Academic integrity and honesty: avoiding plagiarism in written work 9. 1 9. 2 What is plagiarism? Monash University Statute 4. 1 and policy regarding plagiarism 9. 2. 1 What happens when plagiarism is suspected 9. 2. 2 Students’ responsibility Using references appropriately in your written work Use of references in writing 9. 4. 1 Unsuitable use of references Suitable integration of references 9. 5. 1 Techniques for using an author’s ideas 9. 5. 2 A summary 9. 5. 3 Paraphrasing, or writing in your own words Conclusion 51 51 52 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 56 56 57 9. 3 9. 4 9. 5 9. 6 Chapter 10 Referencing.

10. 1 10. 2 10. 3 10. 4 What is referencing? When should you reference? Why should you reference your work? Referencing using the APA style 10. 4. 1 Creating in-text citations 10. 4. 2 Creating a reference list Footnoting 10. 5. 1 In-text citations using footnotes 10. 5. 2 Creating the bibliography 58 58 58 59 59 59 62 69 70 74 10. 5 Chapter 11 Presentation skills 11. 1 11. 2 11. 3 What is a presentation? Planning and preparation 11. 2. 1 Analysing your audience Presentation design 11. 3. 1 Objective 11. 3. 2 Content 11. 3. 3 Structure Visual support 11. 4. 1 Handouts Delivery 11. 5. 1 Methods of delivery 11.

5. 2 Rehearsal Nerve control 11. 5. 3 11. 5. 4 Your voice 11. 5. 5 Non-verbal communication Group presentations 11. 6. 1 Team balance 11. 6. 2 Transitions 11. 6. 3 Support for the speaker 11. 6. 4 Your role as coach Evaluating the presentation Why do some presentations go wrong? 76 76 76 76 76 76 77 77 79 79 80 80 80 80 80 81 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 11. 4 11. 5 11. 6 11. 7 11. 8 Chapter 12 Exam strategies Preparing for exams 12. 1. 1 Establish the type of exam 12. 1. 2 Develop a broad understanding of the unit’s objectives 12. 1. 3 Develop summaries of topics 12. 1. 4 Review unit material and topics 12.

1. 5 Practise past exam questions 12. 1. 6 Multiple choice questions 12. 1. 7 Short answer and essay questions 12. 1. 8 Calculation questions 12. 2 Operating in the exam 12. 2. 1 Reading and noting time 12. 2. 2 Completing the exam Answering multiple choice questions 12. 2. 3 12. 2. 4 Completing written response questions 12. 3 Checklist for exams 12. 1 84 84 84 84 85 85 85 85 86 87 87 87 87 88 88 88 Q Manual Preface and Acknowledgements The purpose of the Q (for Quality) Manual is to provide new students with practical and easily accessible information regarding university-level study.

As its name suggests, this publication is aimed at increasing your effectiveness as a student. For many of you who have not experienced university level study, the Q Manual will provide you with ideas, suggestions and guidelines to enable you to achieve academic success by producing quality work, and getting it submitted on time. We suggest you read the Q Manual thoroughly and refer to it often throughout your course of study. The Q Manual commences with an overview of the Faculty of Business and Economics, its goals, structure and expectations regarding student performance, as well as important policy information about student assessment.

The next chapter provides useful advice in relation to approaches to study at the university level. Then follows the bulk of the Q Manual, which focuses on research skills, academic writing skills, and in particular, chapters devoted to commonly required academic assignments, such as essays, literature reviews, reports and case study method. The section relating to academic writing and assignment preparation is followed by chapters covering academic honesty and referencing techniques. The final sections of the Q Manual cover oral presentation skills and exam strategies.

There are many people whose valuable contributions to this edition of the Q Manual must be acknowledged. They include (in no particular order): Andrew Dixon, Caulfield Campus Library David Horne, Caulfield Campus Library Owen Hughes, Faculty of Business and Economics Sally Joy, Faculty of Business and Economics Lynne Macdonald, Faculty of Business and Economics Michael Scorgie, Department of Accounting and Finance Claire Tanner, Faculty of Arts Our special thanks go to Lynne Macdonald and Claire Tanner for the many hours spent collating and editing the content and for coordinating production of the Q Manual.

Without your efforts and patience, this edition could not have been published. Sincere thanks also go to my dear friend and colleague, Glenda Crosling, who has collaborated with me for many years on a number of significant educational projects for the faculty. A dedicated educator, Glenda works enthusiastically and tirelessly, keeping an open mind, and most importantly, always retaining her wonderful sense of humour! Glenda also thanks Nell for her collegiality, dedication, inspiration and hard work on this and other educational projects.

Together, we have produced a publication that we hope will assist you in your studies. Finally, we wish you a stimulating, challenging and rewarding learning experience throughout your undergraduate and postgraduate studies with the Faculty of Business and Economics. Nell Kimberley Department of Management Faculty of Business and Economics January, 2008 Glenda Crosling Education Adviser Faculty of Business and Economics Chapter 1 Introduction 1. 1 Welcome Congratulations on your selection to study one of the courses offered by the Faculty of Business and Economics at Monash University.

This manual is intended to provide you with information on how to produce quality work and achieve the best possible results in your examinations. The major goal of the university is to assist you to obtain an excellent education so that you may take your place in society as a well-qualified graduate. It is important to note that while the courses provide the teaching support and the necessary framework for your studies, success can be achieved only through your personal commitment and dedication to hard work throughout all the years of your course.

The following information is aimed at familiarising you with the Monash University study environment and increasing your effectiveness as a Monash student, thereby enabling you to reach your potential. For those of you who are experiencing university level study for the first time, this manual will lay an important foundation and prepare you for a new world. 1. 2 Monash University Monash University was established in 1961 and named after General Sir John Monash (1865–1931). Sir John was a soldier, scholar and engineer, and the Commanding General of the Australian forces in France in World War 1.

In addition, as the first Chairman of the State Electricity Commission, he took on the immense task of overseeing the development of the LaTrobe Valley’s brown coal resources. Sir John was a man of wide interests and vast intellectual range. He was this country’s first Doctor of Engineering and exemplifies the University’s motto – Ancora Imparo (I am still learning). The university now has a population of more than 50,000 students from over 100 countries, who speak 90 languages. There are eight Monash campuses and two centres, in Italy and London. The primary pursuits of teaching and research are carried out in the university’s ten faculties.

The faculties, which each cover a specific body of knowledge, are: Art and Design; Arts; Business and Economics; Education; Engineering; Information Technology; Law; Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences; Pharmacy; and Science. 1. 3 1. 3. 1 Faculty of Business and Economics Goals The aim of the faculty is to use its scale, scope and unique internal diversity to become an international leader in the pursuit, dissemination and analysis of knowledge, particularly in the disciplines of accounting, banking, econometrics, economics, finance, management, marketing, and tourism.

By the application of such knowledge, its staff and students will contribute to the economic, social and commercial development of Australia and other countries in an increasingly globalised environment. 1. 3. 2 Faculty structure The Faculty of Business and Economics is the largest faculty in the university, with more than 17,000 students enrolled over five Australian campuses at Berwick, Caulfield, Clayton, Gippsland and Peninsula, as well as in Malaysia and South Africa.

In addition to a diverse range of undergraduate bachelors degrees, the faculty offers a comprehensive range of graduate courses including an executive certificate, graduate certificates and diplomas, masters degrees by coursework and research, the Master of Business Administration, the Doctor of Business Administration, the Master of Philosophy and the Doctor of Philosophy. Courses are delivered on campus, usually through lectures, tutorials and WebCT Vista, while offcampus students are catered for by distance education. 1 The Dean and the main faculty office are located on the Caulfield campus.

In addition, there are faculty staff located at the other campuses. Go to http://www. buseco. monash. edu. au/student/contact/ for location and contact details. 1. 3. 3 Departments and centres The Business and Economics faculty is subdivided into organisations that are responsible for particular areas of knowledge. There are six departments and two research centres. The departments are: Accounting and Finance, Business Law and Taxation, Econometrics and Business Statistics, Economics, Management, and Marketing. The research centres are: Centre of Policy Studies, and Centre for Health Economics.

They cover fields of study including accounting, banking, business law, business statistics, economics, econometrics, finance, international business, management, human resource management, marketing, taxation and tourism. Whatever your major or areas of study it is essential that you have an understanding of each of the disciplines and how they interact with each other in the overall operations of a business organisation. 1. 3. 4 Aims for learning at Monash University and in the Faculty of Business and Economics The university and the faculty recognise the needs of students for their lives following graduation.

As a Monash graduate you will be operating in a globalised and rapidly-changing world, and the university and faculty aim to develop in students’ attributes beyond the ability to understand and operate competently with course and unit content. The aims are that students will develop in ways that will enable them to: • Engage in an internationalised and increasingly globalised world; • Engage in discovery, analysis, integration and application for problem solving and learning with knowledge; • Communicate competently orally and in writing across cultures and settings, including their specific disciplines.

As you undertake your studies, you will notice an emphasis on these attributes and you will be engaged in activities and tasks to help you develop them. In the following chapters of this guide, we explain the influences of these attributes on your approach to study. 1. 3. 5 Units Each department offers a wide range of undergraduate and postgraduate units. In a three-year undergraduate degree, there are twenty-four units, with four units to be taken in each semester (parttime students would normally undertake two units each semester). The unit leader or coordinator is responsible for the administration of the particular unit.

You can consult with your unit leader, and or coordinator in larger units you may also consult with the other lecturers and tutors. 1. 3. 6 Role of lecturers/tutors Lecturers and tutors have a key role as facilitators of your learning. They are able and most willing to help you with your studies and can be contacted using your student email account. Their email addresses are located in the unit outline. Alternatively, academic staff can be contacted during their consultation hours which are often posted on their door or outside the main

administration office. 1. 3. 7 Role of on-line sources of information Monash has adopted a learning management system which provides you with access to on-line unit information. The web contains information that you need to know for the unit, both of an administrative nature as well as useful material for your studies. 2 1. 3. 8 Role of course directors/coordinators If you are encountering academic performance issues, course progression and similar problems you should initially discuss these with enrolment officers or course advisers.

You may, occasionally, then be referred to course directors or course coordinators to help with these issues. Undergraduate students are referred to course directors or course coordinators by the faculty office and postgraduate students by departmental administration staff. If referred, course directors and coordinators are available during their consultation hours. 1. 3. 9 Additional important information The Undergraduate and Postgraduate Handbooks and the Student Resource Guide provide important information regarding various aspects of university life.

The Student Resource Guide is distributed to all students at the time of initial enrolment and is available on-line at www. monash. edu. au/pubs. It contains details of the university’s code of practice for teaching and learning, as well as grievance and appeals procedures. Further copies can be obtained from Student Service Centres on all campuses. An excellent resource for students is also available on-line via the student link on the Business and Economics Faculty webpage at http://www. buseco. monash. edu. au/student/.

The site contains links to important information regarding: courses and units, admissions and enrolments, schools and departments, exams and results, administration, study resources, calendars and timetables, IT and computing, support services, careers and employment, international students, and clubs and associations. 1. 4 Faculty expectations of student performance As students of the faculty, there are a number of units that you will study as part of your course. Although these units may have differing methods of assessment, the faculty has the following expectations of your behaviour and performance. 1. 4. 1.

Attendance and participation at lectures and tutorials Lectures and tutorials are central to your performance in the university. Lectures provide the material you require in order to understand the overall nature and direction of the unit. Important concepts and analysis can be emphasised by the lecturer and put into context for the student. Tutorials are a vital part of your studies. They reinforce lecture material and provide you with an opportunity to discuss material presented in lectures, as well as to ask questions. Tutorials also provide you with the opportunity to develop your oral communication skills.

The material presented is not designed to give you one view on a topic but to facilitate your understanding of the issue under discussion. Where there are alternative views on an issue, you should learn to articulate, critically approach and assess these differing positions. 1. 4. 2 Special consideration and extension of time for submission of an assessment task Students need to use a Special Consideration Application when applying for Special Consideration for overall assessment, end-of-semester examinations, or additional assessment for a unit (or units) studied during the current semester.

Please refer to the following webpage for information on both faculty and university special consideration policy and procedures: http://www. buseco. monash. edu. au/secretariat/policies/spec-con. html Students who require more time to complete a piece of work should apply for an extension of time for submission of an assessment task. Reasons for special consideration include serious short term circumstances beyond the student’s control, such as illness, accident, personal trauma, family emergency or compassionate grounds. Applications should be discussed with the examiner/lecturer/tutor responsible for assessing the task.

Please refer to the current student faculty webpage for forms and further information: http://www. buseco. monash. edu. au/student/exams/specconsemester. html 3 1. 4. 3 Workload You are expected to undertake private study in addition to attending lectures and tutorials. Preparation of work to be discussed in tutorials is essential. You will also be required to complete assignments and projects and submit them on the due dates. When taking into account the work carried out during mid-semester breaks and exam weeks, you would expect to study more than thirty hours each week.

1. 4. 4 Self-reliance Compared to your school experience, at the university you are expected to be more independent and self-reliant. In contrast to teachers at school, lecturers and tutors usually teach large numbers of students, sometimes as many as one thousand. They are happy to assist you, but you need to approach the staff member and be clear about what you wish to discuss. It is also your responsibility as a self-reliant student to attend lectures and tutorials, prepare your tutorial work and submit all written work on time. 1. 4. 5 Time management.

The expectation at the university is that you learn to manage your own time. This applies to full-time students who have a great deal of time available outside of classes, as well as for part-time students who have to balance work and study. The following chapter on study techniques in this manual provides, among other things, some helpful hints on how to best manage your time and get the most out of your career as a student. 1. 5 Student assessment Assessment in a unit may be made up of several components: a formal examination, essays, tests, assignments, oral presentations and tutorial participation.

Assessment details for each unit are provided in the unit guide that you will receive in the first week of each semester. The final mark that a student receives in a unit will be determined by the board of examiners on the recommendation of the chief examiner, taking into account all aspects of assessment. The rights of students to have assessed work re-marked are determined at the departmental level. A student can only be failed after the exam paper has been marked by two staff members. All results are reviewed by the unit leader.

You can find further information relating to the university’s assessment in undergraduate units and the responsibilities of examiners using the main policy bank link at: http://www. buseco. monash. edu. au/secretariat /policies/ 1. 5. 1 Examinations For details of examination regulations, please refer to the Monash University Calendar: http://www. monash. edu. au/pubs/calendar/ 1. 5. 2 Use of English dictionaries and calculators As English is the language of instruction within Monash University, foreign language translation dictionaries are not permitted to be used by students sitting examinations.

Calculators are permitted if specified on the examination paper, but some units may have a calculator restriction. Students are advised to familiarise themselves with any calculator restrictions applying in units they are studying. For permitted calculator(s) for examinations and units of study go to the faculty policy link at: http://www. buseco. monash. edu. au/secretariat/policies/calculator. html 4 1. 5. 3 Results At the end of each semester, following the completion of examinations, a board of examiners considers student performance as a whole before the results are published.

All undergraduate and coursework graduate students who pass are graded into the categories of high distinction, distinction, credit and pass. Honours courses use a different grading system, classified into first class, second class division A, second class division B, third class and pass. 1. 5. 4 Marks and grades Following is a list of marks and grades used within the faculty: 0–49 40–49 45–49 50–59 60–69 70–79 80–100 N NS NP P C D HD NE WH Fail Fail, supplementary exam awarded by Board of Examiners only to graduate students and under special circumstances Near pass is only awarded to undergraduate students.

It may be awarded for the last unit to complete a degree. Pass Credit Distinction High distinction Not examined. Used when a unit is taught over two semesters Withheld. Used, for example, when assessment is outstanding due to a special consideration application or incomplete assessment. DEF Deferred examination granted SFR Satisfied faculty requirements This grading system will be current until 2009. For amendments after this time go to: http://www. buseco. monash. edu. au/secretariat/policies/methods-assessment. html 1. 5. 5 Honours grading

Honours units are graded as follows: Below 50 50–59 60–69 70–79 80–100 Fail HIII HIIB HIIA HI 5 1. 5. 6 Examples of grades and corresponding achievement levels HD High Distinction 80–100% D Distinction 70–79% A very high standard of work which demonstrates originality and insight C Credit 60–69% Demonstrates a high level of understanding and presentation and a degree of originality and insight Thorough understanding of core texts and materials P Pass 50–59% Satisfies the minimum requirements N Fail 0–49% Fails to satisfy the minimum requirements General description.

Outstanding or exceptional work in terms of understanding, interpretation and presentation Strong evidence of independent reading beyond core texts and materials Demonstrates insight, awareness and understanding of deeper and more subtle aspects of the topic. Ability to consider topic in the broader context of the discipline Demonstrates imagination or flair. Demonstrates originality and independent thought Highly developed analytical and evaluative skills Ability to solve very challenging problems Reading Evidence of reading beyond core texts and materials Evidence of having read core texts and materials.

Very little evidence of having read any of the core texts and materials Knowledge of topic Evidence of an awareness Sound knowledge of and understanding of principles and concepts deeper and more subtle aspects of the topic Knowledge of principles Scant knowledge of and concepts at least principles and concepts adequate to communicate intelligently in the topic and to serve as a basis for further study Articulation of argument Evidence of imagination or flair. Evidence of originality and independent thought Clear evidence of analytical and evaluative skills.

Well-reasoned argument based on broad evidence Sound argument based on evidence Very little evidence of ability to construct coherent argument Analytical and evaluative skills Problem solving Evidence of analytical and evaluative skills Some evidence of analytical and evaluative skills Very little evidence of analytical and evaluative skills Ability to solve non-routine Ability to use and apply problems fundamental concepts and skills Well developed skills in expression and presentation Good skills in expression and presentation. Accurate and consistent acknowledgement of sources.

Adequate problem-solving Very little evidence of skills problem-solving skills Expression and presentation appropriate to the discipline Highly developed skills in expression and presentation Adequate skills in expression and presentation Inadequate skills in expression and presentation. Inaccurate and inconsistent acknowledgement of sources Source: University of Adelaide 2005 6 Chapter 2 Approaching study in the Faculty of Business and Economics Introduction Study at university is like a full-time job that requires commitment, and cannot just be added on to a range of other interests.

It differs in many ways from study in other educational settings. A major difference is the independence and self reliance expected of students in their study. This idea concerns: • Managing your time, balancing your study with other commitments. • Your approach to learning in your units. In this chapter, we discuss the implications of independence and self reliance for the way you approach your studies. Assistance with time management is also available from university learning and personal support services, go to http://www. monash.edu/pubs/handbooks/srg/srg-266.

html for faculty and campus contacts. 2. 1 The study “mindset” The units that you study present information, concepts and theories. It is expected that you will understand these fully. In addition, you must think critically and analytically so that you can evaluate and apply the knowledge, concepts and theories to different situations. You also need to think about the information from international and global perspectives, and to communicate your thinking clearly and appropriately orally and in writing.

This means that you must do more in your written work than merely describe the concepts and knowledge, which will not get you good marks. There are times when you do need to provide definitions and an overview of concepts and theories, but such information usually only functions as an introduction for your integration of ideas, critical analysis and application, in relation to the issue, topic and task. Integration of information and critical and analytical thinking are central to the idea of independence in study. It means that you take an objective approach to the knowledge, concepts and theories.

Such an approach is necessary so that you can: • Integrate sometimes contrasting ideas from a range of sources and develop your own perspective on an issue or topic in relation to these; • ‘Pull apart’ the knowledge in your units and explain how the parts all work together (analysis); • Evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages of knowledge, concepts and theories for particular situations (critical approach). This emphasis may differ from how you approached your study in other educational settings. For instance, you may have expected there to be one right answer, or two sides to an issue or topic.

In your university studies, you need to understand that there are multiple views surrounding a topic or issue. The suitability of the view that you develop, often by synthesising several views, depends on the perspective from which you look at the issue. Such a concept of the relativity of knowledge applies to all the business and economics disciplines. In accounting, for instance, particular accounting situations are interpreted in terms of the Standard Accounting Concepts, and in econometrics and business statistics, a set of data is interpreted in relation to a particular purpose, or the needs of a particular user.

Your ability to operate in the way explained above is based on you understanding the nature of academic enquiry and discovery, as we explain in the next section. 7 2. 2 Academic enquiry, discovery and independence in study Academic enquiry and discovery are concerned with the development or advancement of knowledge in a field of study, which occurs through research and investigation. Students engage in academic enquiry and discovery, to some degree, when they integrate and apply knowledge, concepts and theories to different situations.

Thus, in university study, there are: • No absolutes • Knowledge evolves as researchers challenge, confirm or modify earlier understandings. When investigating an issue for an assignment task that is based on evidence from the literature, you need to overview and integrate the range of views surrounding the issue or topic. When you have formed your response and structured your written work to express this, you must indicate to your reader how you have arrived at that view. That is, the ideas and views that you read in the literature function as the ‘building blocks’ of your response.

In your writing, if you do not explain to your reader the evidence or the building blocks for your view, you are only expressing opinions. These are ideas unsubstantiated by evidence and are not valued in university study. Another perspective The manager has a range of roles that are significant in the operations of an organisation, and decision making is one of these (Mintzberg, 1979) One perspective Decision making is an important aspect but only part of the manager’s role (Lee, 2000). Decision making in the manager’s role.

Further perspective Decision making is the foundation of a manager’s role (Brown, 2002) Figure 1: Multiple views of a topic or issue Figure 1 depicts the situation in relation to a topic in a unit that relies on views in the literature. Note how decision-making in the manager’s role is seen from different perspectives by different authors. In a unit such as econometrics and business statistics, you may be required to analyse a set of data from a perspective of, for instance, a marketing manager, or a city council.

Thus, the information in the data that would be relevant for the former would be on aspects such as sales, while for the city council which is concerned with providing services, the emphasis would be on the city’s population and its needs. Thus, in units that rely on data such as econometrics and business statistics, you need to analyse the data, form a perspective on the issue from the data analysis, and then select from your data to support the viewpoint you have developed. In a unit such as economics, it means being able to distinguish between facts and value statements.

8 2. 3 Approaching study in the faculty disciplines As you continue with your faculty study, you will realise that the approaches to knowledge in the disciplines of the faculty differ in some ways. Understanding such variation will help you adjust your thinking and approach across your units of study. This is particularly applicable if you are a double degree student and studying across two faculties. For instance, when you are studying a first year law unit in your Business and Economics degree, you will be presented with problem question assignments.

You approach and think about these, and structure information differently, than you would for essays in a unit such as management, or, for example, reports in a marketing unit. You are using different forms of data and evidence, and applying critical analysis in ways that are particular to the unit and its discipline. The approach that the disciplines take to knowledge is reflected in the way information is put together in the texts and in lectures. These exemplify the characteristics of the particular discipline. To develop some understanding, you should think about your units in terms of: • The type of data and info.

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