Elementary school was formerly the name given to publicly funded schools in Great Britain which provided a basic standard of education for working class children aged from five to 14, the school leaving age at the time. They were also known as industrial schools. Elementary schools were set up to enable working class children to receive manual training and elementary instruction. They provided a restricted curriculum with the emphasis on reading, writingand arithmetic (the three Rs).
The schools operated on a ‘monitorial’ system, whereby one teacher supervised a large class with the assistance of a team of monitors, who were quite often older pupils. Elementary school teachers were paid by results. Their pupils were expected to achieve precise standards in reading, writing and arithmetic such as reading a short paragraph in a newspaper, writing from dictation, and working out sums and fractions.  Before 1944 around 80 percent of the school population attended elementary schools through to the age of 14.
The remainder transferred either to secondary school or junior technical school at age 11. The school system was changed with the introduction of the Education Act 1944. Education was restructured into three progressive stages which were known as primary education,secondary education and further education.  In the UK, schools providing primary education are now known as primary schools. They generally cater for children aged from four to eleven (Reception to Year Six or in Northern Ireland and Scotland P1 to P7).
Primary schools are often subdivided into infant schools for children from four to seven and junior schools for ages seven to 11. In the (diminishing) minority of areas where there is a “three-tier” system, children go to lower school or “first school” until about 9, then middle school until about 13, then upper school; in these places, the term “primary school” is not usually used. ————————————————- United States Main article: Education in the United States.
Elementary school in Kentucky, 1946 In the United States, authority to regulate education resides constitutionally with the individual states. The direct authority of the U. S. Congress and the federal U. S. Department of Education is essentially limited to regulation and enforcement of federal constitutional rights. Great indirect authority is exercised through federal funding of national programs and block grants; but there is no obligation upon any state to accept these funds, and the U. S.
government otherwise may propose but not enforce national goals, objectives and standards, which generally lie beyond its jurisdiction. Nevertheless, education has had a relatively consistent evolution throughout the United States. All states have historically made a distinction between two genres of K-12 education and three genres of K-12 school. The genres of education are primary and secondary; and the genres of school are elementary school, middle or junior high school, and high school (historically, “senior” high school to distinguish it from the junior school).
Primary education (or “primary school” meaning “primary education”) still tends to focus on basic academic learning and socialization skills, introducing children to the broad range of knowledge, skill and behavioral adjustment they need to succeed in life – and, particularly, in secondary school. Secondary education or secondary school has always focused on preparing adolescents for higher education or/and for careers in industries, trades or professions that do not require an academic degree.
The elementary school has always been the main point of delivery for primary education; and the (senior) high school has always been the focal point ofsecondary education. Originally, elementary school was synonymous with primary education, taking children from kindergarten through grade 8; and secondary school was entirely coextensive with the high school grades 9 – 12. This system was the norm in America until the years following World War I, because most children in most parts of what was then the mostly rural United States could go no further than Grade 8.
Even when the high schools were available, they were often not accessible. As the population grew and became increasingly urban and suburban instead of rural, the one-room schoolhouse gave way to the multi-room schoolhouse, which became multiple schools. This produced the third genre of school – the junior high school – which was designed to provide transitional preparation from primary school to secondary school, thus serving as a bridge between the elementary school and the high school.
Elementary schools typically operated grades Kindergarten through 6; the junior high school, often housed in the same building as the senior high school, then covered grades 7 through 9; and the senior high school operated grades 10 through 12. At the same time, grade 9 marked the beginning of high school for the purpose of GPA calculation. It was typical during this period for state departments of education to certify (in California, “credential”) teachers to work in either primary or secondary education.
A Primary School Certificate qualified the holder to teach any subject in grades K through 8, and his/her major and minor subjects in grade 9. A Secondary School Certificate qualified the holder to teach any subject in grades 7 and 8, and his/her major and minor subjects in grades 9 through 12. Certain subjects, such as music, art, physical, and special education were or could be conferred as K through 12 Teaching Certificates. By the late 1960s, the lines of transition between primary and secondary education began to blur, and the junior high school started to get replaced by the middle school.
This change typically saw reassignment of grade 9 to the (senior) high school, with grade 6 reassigned to the middle school with grades 7 and 8. Subsequent decades in many states have also seen the realignment of teacher certification, with grade 6 frequently now included on the secondary teaching certificate. Thus, whereas 20th-century American education began with the elementary school finishing at grade 8, the 21st century begins with the American elementary school finishing at grade 5 in many jurisdictions.
Nevertheless, the older systems do persist in many jurisdictions. While they are in the minority today, there are still school districts which, instead of adopting the “middle school”, still distinguish between junior and senior high schools. Thus, high schools can be either 9-12, which is most common, or 10-12. ————————————————- Saudi Arabia Main article: Education in Saudi Arabia The Saudi Arabian term for elementary school is ??????? ?????????? , consisting of students from ages 6 to 12.
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