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Pugs Breed Essay

I. Introduction

There is no other breed like the Pug. Not only does he look distinctive, but he has a character like no other. His furrowed brow may make him appear perpetually worried, but beneath the wrinkles lies a happy-go-lucky dog with a clown-like personality. Ask Pug owners to describe their dogs, and the same words crop up time and again: ‘loving’, ‘intelligent’, ‘alert’, and ‘inquisitive. However, one word appears more than any other – ‘fun’! This is a dog that will keep you amused for hours with his antics, and who will thrive on your smiles and laughter. Once you have shared your home and your life with one of these unique dogs, you will understand the breed motto: Multum in parvo – a lot of dog in a small place! The first recorded appearance of the word pug in the English language occurred in 1566. Pug was a term of endearment then, applied to persons but rarely to animals. By 1600 pug had acquired two additional meanings: “courtesan” and “bargeman”.

These would appear to be strange bedfellows, linguistically at least, but pug did not stop there in its acquisition of new themes. By 1664 pug also meant “demon,” “imp,” “sprite,” “monkey,” and “ape.” Not until the middle of the next century, according to The Oxford English Dictionary (OED), did pug come to mean “a dwarf breed of dog resembling a bull-dog in miniature”. The OED also added that the pug “on account of its affectionate nature [was] much kept as a pet.” So much that in 1749 David Garrick, an English actor and theatrical manager, wrote “A fine lady… keeps a pug-dog and hates the Parsons.” Some disagreement exists regarding the manner in which pug came to be applied to these endearing, impish, sprite like, solid-as-a-barge, sometimes demonic little monkeys that were great favorites at court if not with courtesans. Many observers believe that pug first was applied to monkeys and, after certain facial resemblances between monkeys and the little dogs with the curly tails had been noted, the word was applied to the dogs, too. (This application was noted as early as 1731 in England.)

Persons subscribing to this theory point out that pugs were called pug dogs originally to distinguish them from pug monkeys. Other observers wrote that the pug was derived from the Latin pugmus, meaning “fist,” because to some people the Pug’s profile resembled a clenched fist. Still others believe pug is a corruption of Puck, the name of the mischievous fairy in Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream. The puckish nature of the Pug would seem to support this theory, but the OED does not. After acknowledging that pug “agrees completely in sense with Puck,” the OED cautions that pug “is not easily accounted for as a mere phoenetic variant” of Puck.

Like so many questions regarding animal history, the matter of how the Pug got its name – and how that name eventually came to be written in some contexts with a capital P-in the end devolves to a no-one-can-be-certain resolution. Our money is on the borrowed-from-the-monkey-name theory: but before we leave this question, we should point out that Pug also has been applied to lambs, hares, squirrels, ferrets, salmon, moths, small locomotives, foxes, trout, clay, and the footprints of any beast. Anent the capital P, this convention is followed in books about dog breeds and in other breed-related contexts, but in civilian writing the only words capitalized in breed names are proper nouns that would be capitalized in any context.

II. Origin

a. Family

In china, there has been a long breed of dog known as the Happa which is similar to a smooth-coated Pekingese. Indeed, many people believed that the Happa may be the progenitor of Pug. Short-mouthed dogs in China are known as Lo-sze and although they may well have been known there as far back as 1115BC, there is no record of them until 663BC. The Lo-sze had clear features distinguishing it from the Pekingese: the muzzle was different, the coat was short, and the ears were small and vine shaped. by 732AD, we read of a shot-faced dog, known as the Suchuan pai dog, that was among gifts sent from Korea to Japan.

b. Country of Origin

Theories about the origin of the Pug have caused much debate over the years, some thinking the breed to have developed in the far east, others thinking it developed in Europe. It is now generally accepted that the pug originated in China, from where it spread to Japan and later to Europe.

III. Characteristic

a. Color

The breed has a fine, smooth, soft, short and glossy coat that comes in a variety of colors and a compact square body. Their coats determine their color that can be fawn, apricot fawn, silver fawn and black but they are the same in every way.

b. Size and Weight

Pugs are describe as multum in parvo( much in little), referring to the pugs personality and small size. This is shown by compactness of form, well knit proportions, and hardness of a well developed muscle. It’s weight from 14 to 18 pounds (dog or bitch) as desirable.

c. Distinct Characteristic

Head

The head is large, massive, and round-not apple-headed, with no indentation of the skull. The eyes are dark in color, very large, bold and prominent, globular in shape, soft and solicitous in expression, very lustrous, and, when excited, full of fire. The ears are thin, small, and soft, like black velvet. There are two kinds-the “rose” and the “button.” The wrinkles are large and deep. The muzzle is short, blunt, square, but not up faced. Bite-A Pug’s bite should be very slightly undershot.

Neck, Top line and Body

The neck is slightly arched. It is strong, thick, and with enough length to carry the head proudly. The short back is level from the withers to the high tail set. The body is short and cobby, wide in chest and well ribbed up. The tail is curled as tightly as possible over the hip. The double curl is perfection.

Forequarters

The legs are very strong, straight, of moderate length, and are set well under. The elbows should be directly under the withers when viewed from the side. The shoulders are moderately laid back. The feet are neither so long as the foot of the hare, nor so round as that of the cat; well split-up toes, and the nails black.

Hindquarters

The strong, powerful hindquarters have moderate bend of stifle and short hocks perpendicular to the ground. The legs are parallel when viewed from behind. The hindquarters are in balance with the forequarters. The thighs and buttocks are full and muscular. Feet is in front.

Coat

A pug’s coat is double if she is fawn colored. Her guard (outer) hair is longer than the hair of her undercoat, and is straight, fine, smooth, soft, and glossy, neither hard nor woolly. Her undercoat is shorter, softer and somewhat fluffier.

Markings

The markings are clearly defined. The muzzle or mask, ears, moles on cheeks, thumb mark or diamond on forehead, and the back trace should be as black as possible. The mask should be black. The more intense and well defined it is, the better. The trace is a black line extending from the occiput to the tail.

Gait

Viewed from the front, the forelegs should be carried well forward, showing no weakness in the pasterns, the paws landing squarely with the central toes straight ahead. The rear action should be strong and free through hocks and stifles, with no twisting or turning in or out at the joints. The hind legs should follow in line with the front. There is a slight natural convergence of the limbs both fore and aft. A slight roll of the hindquarters typifies the gait which should be free, self-assured, and jaunty.

Temperament

This is an even-tempered breed, exhibiting stability, playfulness, great charm, dignity, and an outgoing, loving disposition. Pugs are strong willed and rarely aggressive and suitable for families and children. Depending on their mood, they can be quiet and docile but also vivacious and teasing.

Other Characteristics

• Because of the short nose they are limited in long runs and even walks in the hot weather
• Pugs are sensitive to cold and hot temperature
• They shed a lot, despite having only short fur
• They are hyper, a pug puppy is a “Live Wire”. They need about 2 years to grow up and even then, it still needs around 3 more years until they become somewhat sedate.

d. Behavior

Pugs like your attention most of the time and they will do sometimes very strange and funny looking things to get your attention. Some say pugs are little clowns, they show off to make you laugh and love them even more. They will try to hypnotize you with their big and sad eyes, so that you give them more food (that’s why there are so many overweight pugs). People with a very soft heart might over feed their pug, which leads to health problems and limits their ability to walk and run even more. They snore when they sleep, can be really loud considering their size. They love children (must have something to do with their size) and they aren’t as easy to train as many other breed because they are not aggressive at all.

IV. Health

a. Life Span

Small dogs live longer than big dogs. That’s a rule of thumb that usually applies but may not always be totally correct. A pug’s life expectancy is influenced by many factors. A pug isn’t the tiniest dog in town, but she is rather small and with good care, probably will be with you until she reaches a ripe old age. You are committed to providing her grooming and the best nutrition and preventive health care, so you should expect to have your partner with you for more than a dozen years. A logical method for equating a Pug’s life to that of a human is to consider the first year of a dog’s life equal to 21 human years, and each year there-after equal to four human years. By that calculation, a 15-year-old pug would be equal to a 77-year-old human.

That formula may be nearer to correct than other estimations such as the time-honored one-to-seven, wherein a 15-year-old pug would equate to a 105-year-old human. Any calculation may err when extraneous factors enter into the formula, such as health care, size, exercise and nutrition. If we accept that human old age begins at 65, then a pug’s senior state starts at about 12. A small, healthy, well-cared-for dog may live well beyond 15 years. After she has been a member of your family for about nine years, she will probably show aging signs. Her black muzzle gradually sprouts gray hair and she begins to lose some of her pep and sharpness. She’ll play with her toys less and less and prefers to seek a place in the sun where she can nap, but she is alert, responsive and still your very best friend.

b. Common Disorders/Ailments

Distemper

Loss of appetite, depression, chills, and fever, as well as a watery discharge from the eyes and nose are only few signs of this disease. If it is not treated promptly, it could go into an advanced stage and even cause infection in different parts of the body like the lungs and intestines as well as the nervous system. An annual booster after inoculations in puppyhood will help protect the dog.

Canine Hepatitis

Drowsiness, loss of appetite, high temperature and excessive thirst are the signs of this disease. It may also be accompanied by swelling of the head, neck and abdomen. Death may occur in only a few minutes since this disease strikes quickly. And to prevent this disease, annual booster shot is required after the initial series of puppy shots.

Leptospirosis

Dogs that had licked on substances contaminated by the urine and feces of infected animals may get leptospirosis which is caused by either of two serovars, canicola or copehageni. Weakness, vomiting, and a yellowish discoloration of the jaws, teeth, and tongue which is caused by an inflammation of the kidney is a sign of this disease.

Rabies

Showing signs of melancholy or depression, the irritation and finally paralysis maybe caused by rabies. It is a dog disease in the central nervous system which is spread by infectious saliva in a form of bite of an infected animal. No cure is possible after the signs of rabies appear. It is suggested that the local health department must be notified about rabid dog, for it is dangerous to all people who come near him. An annual rabies inoculation is very important as well as vaccination which is required by the law.

Parvovirus

Attacks in the intestinal tract, white blood cells, and heart muscle are due to canine parvovirus. It spread through dog-to-dog. Parvovirus is difficult to overcome for it is in the environment for many months under varying condition and temperature. And it can be transmitted from place to place on the hair and feet of infected dogs, as well as on the clothes and shoes of people. The best preventive measure for canine parvovirus is a series of shot administered by a veterinarian.

Lyme Disease

Lyme disease, which is known a a bacterial infection, is transmitted by ticks infected with a spicochete known as Borrelia burgdorferi. It is often acquired by the parasitic bite of an infected deer tick, Ixodes dammini. Common warning signs include a rash beginning at the bite and soon extending in a bullseye-targetlike fashion, chills, fever, lack of balance, lethargy, stiffness, swelling, pain in joints, heart problems, weak limbs, facial paralysis, and tactile sensation.

Parainfluenza

Parainfluenza, or infectious canine tracheobronchitis, is commonly known as “kennel cough.” It affects the upper respiratory system and spread through direct and indirect contact. Dogs that have not been vaccinated, it will readily be infected. It usually last two to four weeks and this condition is definitely serious disease. High fever and intense, harsh coughing is the symptom of this disease.

c. Diet

Canned Food

Dogs love canned food. It gets that good flavor from its high fat content. For old pugs that have lost teeth, canned food is easy to eat. It’s also easy to serve; just plop it into a bowl. The disadvantages are several. For one, canned food is expensive. Its water content is high — as much as 78 percent — so you’re not getting a lot of meat for your money. Canned food sticks to teeth and is a factor in the formation of plaque, which leads to periodontal disease. Although canned food has a long shelf life while it’s still in the can, it must be refrigerated after it’s opened and it can’t be left in your pug’s bowl for long periods without spoiling, of course.

Dry Food

Pricewise, dry food has it all over canned food. It costs much less, which is something to consider if you’re on a budget or feeding more than one pug. Dry food has a long shelf life and won’t go bad if it sits in your pug’s bowl all day (not likely unless he doesn’t like the taste). Don’t forget to choose a small kibble size for your pug’s eating comfort. Dry food has a reputation for helping to prevent the buildup of plaque and tartar on teeth, although it’s not as beneficial as you might think.

Dry foods and dog biscuits can help chip off small amounts of tartar (the hardened form of plaque), but they don’t affect the gum line area, where the real problems start. The exception to this is veterinary foods that are designed to have a cross-hatch effect on teeth, scrubbing them all the way to the gum line. On the downside, kibble usually contains less fat and more carbohydrates than canned food, so it doesn’t taste as good. If you have one of the rare finicky pugs, you can tempt his taste buds by mixing a little canned food in with the dry food.

Frozen Food

Frozen dog foods are made with fresh ingredients and contain no artificial preservatives. They’re mixed, formed into loaves, rolls, or cubes, and flash-frozen to preserve freshness. Consider a commercial frozen food if you like the idea of fresh ingredients but don’t have time to cook for the dog yourself. The disadvantage is that frozen dog food is available only in limited distribution. You’re more likely to find it at mom-and-pop pet supply stores rather than at big pet supply chains.

It must be kept frozen until you’re ready to use it, and you have to remember to defrost it before feeding. While cubes can be fed frozen, it’s unlikely that this sort of cold meal would appeal to your pug. Any unused portion must be refrigerated. If you’re traveling with your pug, it’s difficult to bring frozen food along unless you have some means of refrigeration or of finding it in pet supply stores along the way. Check the manufacturer’s Web site before you leave so you can note the addresses and phone numbers of stores that carry the food.

Semi-Moist Food

This type of diet is softer than dry food but not as messy as canned food. The amount of water it contains ranges from 15 percent to 30 percent. Ingredients include fresh or frozen animal tissues, grains, fats, and sugars. Other than convenience and palatability, there’s not much to be said in favor of semi-moist foods. They contain high amounts of sugar, putting them squarely in the junk food category. In cost, they fall somewhere between canned and dry food, although single-serve packets usually compare in price to canned foods. This type of food is best given in small quantities as a treat.

Premium Foods

Some dog foods are described as “premium.” This term, which is not regulated by law, generally refers to products that contain highly digestible ingredients with good to excellent availability of nutrients. The difference between premium and non-premium foods is density per volume. That is, a cup of a premium food usually has more usable nutrients than a cup of non-premium food. You can see the difference in the amount of poop your pug produces. In the long run, it can cost less to feed a premium food because your pug eats less of it and gets more out of it. But given their choice, most Pugs will prefer a canned or semi-moist food over the dry variety. The key, of course, is to find the most nutritious dog food and you can learn a lot by reading the label. We also think that there is something to be said for having a variety of Pug foods in your dog’s diet. Humans don’t like to eat the same thing all of the time and neither do Pugs.

d. Environment

Pugs cannot tolerate high heat and humidity for very long. Dogs cool off by panting and their long tongues and noses give them more cooling area. Pugs have virtually no cooling area for their bodies, so they can (and will) literally over heat and die in less than 30 minutes outdoors in high heat and/or humidity. In addition, dogs dissipate body heat through panting. But brachiocephalic (short-muzzled) dogs, like pugs, because of their flat faces and smaller noses, cannot dissipate heat as effectively. Pugs therefore have a tendency to overheat and can become ill or even die from excessive heat exposure.

V. Relationship
a. To Humans

1. Owner

Pugs love to be close to humans, especially to their master. They want to achieve a very close relationship with them. They just love to give attention to humans whether it is licking your arm, licking your face or just sitting beside you. Ears pulled back plus a wagging tail shows a happy pug who wants to give you all the attention. Pugs will do what they need to do in order to please the owner. However, when your Pug pulls away, tugs away or curls up tightly, it means that want to be left alone. Pugs also love you to give them your attention such as petting them, walking with them or playing with them. Giving them physical affections enables pugs to feel that you also want to be close with them. While the relationship between dogs and humans began as a working partnership, people soon realized the dog’s potential simply as a companion.

The pug is one of the many breeds fostered solely to keep people company and provide entertainment. The pug predominates in both of these qualities. Pugs are independent, headstrong, and determined. They love to play, making them ideal for families with children. Pugs love to be with children, considering them as their own sibling. They are also patient and very eager to play with the kids. Pugs are very friendly when around them. They love to amuse kids as they play along together and pugs love their company. Pugs are a wonderful family dog. They even appeal to people who otherwise wouldn’t consider keeping a small dog.

Eating and spending time with his people are the favourite parts of a pug’s day. At night, he goes to bed with you, ready to do it all over again the next day. A pug is a guaranteed best friend for life. He wants to be with you every minute of every day. If that’s what you want in a dog, you can’t do better than a pug. Pugs are very clingy to people and they seek attention. They prefer to be treated as another family member and demands to be in almost all activities. He will alert you to every visitor as he seeks out every opportunity to greet new people. Although do not expect a pug to be a watchdog, because pugs are lazy and they only want to amuse the new person it meets. Yet, they are very protective of there home, and family. Pugs love humans and humans love pugs.

2. Strangers

In general, pugs are crazy about people. They usually love to amuse the new person they meet. Most are extremely outgoing, happy to meet strangers, and always ready to play with kids. The Pug is a jolly and cheerful fellow that gets along with just about anyone. At times, they may become very jealous, but does exceptionally well around strangers. More active pugs are willing to go anywhere and do anything as long as it means being with their people. Pugs are very approachable, friendly and sociable.

b. To Other Pets

Pugs are usually comfortable with new pets such as cats or dog. However, it all depends on the past experiences of this pug. Pugs are very curious animals, and will most likely just smell the other cat and/or dog. It is very uncommon for a pug to attack another pet on the spot. He can do very well around other pets, but should be socialized at an early age. On the other hand, pugs tend to be too exclusive in their relationship. They love to be the center of attention. Sometimes, they find it difficult to share their owner’s affection and attention with other pets. It is quite complicated to predict the success you will have in adding a new pet to your home because such differences exist among other pets. In addition, they have varying degrees and innate tendencies towards dominance when other pets come along. But in general, pugs naturally accept other pets as part of their family and they do not seek to be the most dominant among the bunch.

VI. Proper Care

a. Feeding

In feeding your pet pug you must not choose a plate or bowl that has a very light weight. It must be heavy for the plate or bowl will not move when the pug is eating or drinking. It must be metal because metals last forever, don’t restrain odors and are easy to clean, look for wide bowls with rounded bottom and low sides but metals has one disadvantages of metal dishes is that they can’t be put into the microwave, because some dogs want warmed food because it intensifies the aroma and increases flavor. Rather choose ceramic dishes, they are heavy and breakable and can be put into the microwave. In feeding a pug it’s perfectly fine to feed a puppy only twice a day — morning and evening.

It won’t make any difference in his activity level or behaviour. Just divide the amount of food he needs daily into two meals instead of three or four. Controlling a pug puppy’s growth rate is important. A puppy needs lots of calories to fuel his rapid development, but too many calories simply make him fat. That excess weight is often the determining factor in the development of orthopaedic problems such as hip dysplasia or luxating patellas. Try to keep your pug pup lean. Pugs are cute when they’re roly-poly, but it’s not a healthy condition for them.

You must not feed the pug a human food but dog food. Cut the pug’s food into bite size for it will be safe for the pug if he doesn’t chew his food. A routine in feeding a pug helps you know if you’re pug is healthy or not. There’s no way you can exercise a pug enough for him to lose weight, so exercise must be combined with feeding fewer calories. The simplest way to start is to reduce the amount of food you give. If you usually measure out a heaping cup of food, level it off. That alone can help. If reducing the amount of food isn’t practical, switch to a brand with fewer calories. You can find any number of diet dog foods at the grocery store or pet supply store. Look for a product that says “lite” or “less active.”

b. Grooming

An essential part of pug ownership involves grooming. Coat care increases bonding and general health because grooming also includes routine care of eyes, ears and feet. The 10 minutes spent every day will be returned with interest because a pug enjoys having you fuss all over her; she likes the attention. You would be surprised at the number of simple problems that can be averted by regular grooming.

Shedding

Shedding is normal to all canines. A few breeds have coats that give the appearance of not shedding, but they too lose dead hair. You don’t find shed hair on the furniture, because those dead hairs are cleverly trapped in their curls. Those curls and the dead hair contained therein are whisked away when the curly Poodle is shaved by a groomer every month. Seasonal shedding is somewhat climate oriented, and is related to the amount of daylight afforded. Shedding is related to the quality of your Pug’s nutrition as well, and increased outdoor exercise seems to slow down excessive shedding. Some breeds simply shed more than others, and a pug is a generous little companion that loves to share her coat with her family.

Double coats tend to shed more noticeably than single coats, and a fawn Pug has a double coat. Soft, short hairs manage to work into all fabrics that touch a pug, and early in your relationship you will hang a tape-roller in every closet. Shedding is the bane of Pugs and to minimize it from becoming a super problem, comb and brush your pug every time you can, but no less than three or four times a week.

Combing and Brushing

A Pug’s short coat is cared for by simply brushing. Pugs do admittedly have fly away hair that can be time consuming. A grooming glove is a blessing to a Pug owner who likes to pet Muggs but doesn’t like brushing. Grooming gloves take the ”brush” out of ”brushing,” and a few minutes of frequent, intense petting with a grooming glove will make shedding manageable. A monthly or semi-monthly bath will make it even more governable. Some shampoos are designed to help retain healthy coats. A high quality diet is critical and some veterinarians recommend vitamin A and fatty acid supplements that are formulated to improve the nature and texture of coats and help reduce shedding. Regular outdoor exercise is also extremely important to a healthy coat. A pug should be acclimated for more intense grooming while still a pup.

When you first bring your pug home, or at least while she is still a puppy, stand her on your grooming table, slip the leash loop over her head, and talk to her in quiet and reassuring tones. Pet her and rub her body all over with a grooming glove to accustom her to grooming in general. When she sits down, gently lift her bottom and continue petting and rubbing. After three or four minutes on the table, she should relax and when she does, pet her for another minute, then stop, remove the loop, give her a tiny tidbit, tell her what a good dog she is, and set her on the floor. If you repeat that exercise several times a day for a week, she will quickly learn to expect it and won’t fight the idea when real grooming starts.

Bathing

Some Pugs develop very little body odor if they are exposed to the sunshine and fresh air daily, in which case, frequent bathing is unnecessary. Bathing helps remove some loose hair and if your pug rolls in something nasty, or if she develops bad body odor for any reason, a bath is in order. Before bathing, comb and brush your pug until most of the fly-away hair is gone. Pull a cotton ball in half, twist each half tightly, and work a twist gently into each ear canal. Squeeze a tiny amount of petroleum jelly onto her corneas at the lateral (outside) corner of each eye. It will melt and spread over the cornea to protect her sensitive eyes from shampoo.

Place a rubber mat in the tub or sink and fill with about four inches of tepid water. Stand your pug inside the tub and with the shower hose, or if one isn’t available, with a cupped hand, dip water and soak her coat. Squirt a modest amount of a good canine shampoo onto her back, neck, abdomen, and rump and rub briskly. Pickup each foot and leg and shampoo her tail. Work the shampoo into a lather with your fingers or a shampoo mitt. Don’t shampoo her face. After shampooing her body, rinse the lather off with the shower hose. Dampen a washcloth or soft sponge with clean warm water. Use the damp washcloth to clean her face and facial wrinkles. Take extra precautions to rinse all bodily wrinkles.

Nail Care

Carpet and soft lawns cause very little nail wear, and if she spends the majority of time on those surfaces, her nails may need trimming once a week. If you routinely take her walking on concrete sidewalks, or asphalt trails, her nails may require trimming once a month or less. Begin trimming your pug’s nails when she is two- or three-months old. Her first few weeks with you is a training period during which you should routinely snip off the nail tips once a week. Cut only the tips because you do not want to risk causing pain and bleeding by getting a nail too short. From youth until old age, her nails should be quickly examined every time she is groomed and trimmed when necessary.

As your pug ages and becomes less active, she will undoubtedly require more frequent nail care. If you see her chewing her nails or hear her nails clicking on the tile, they need attention. A pug’s toenail is a horny, layered structure that grows outward and downward from the last digit of each toe. The quick or nail-bed is very sensitive and contains several tiny blood vessels and sensory nerves. Pug nails are black and the delineation between nail-bed and insensitive nail is nearly impossible to see. If cut too deeply, pain and bleeding results. If toenails are trimmed regularly the quick will remain significantly behind the tip of the nail, but if nails are not worn off or trimmed, it gradually grows toward the tip of the nail.

Dental Care

A pug loves to eat but she doesn’t use toothpicks, floss, or a toothbrush. Cleaning your pug’s teeth is another program that you should start during her first few weeks in your home. Her baby teeth are still in place, and obviously they are strong and clean but routine brushing at an early age will accustom her to that grooming task, which will be better accepted later. Canine preventive dentistry can stop periodontitis (gum inflammation), which has long been neglected by owners. Untold numbers of small dogs are anesthetized to clean their teeth and extract those that are loose, covered with plaque and tartar, and beyond saving. Many older canines’ health problems, such as nephritis (degenerative kidney disease), cardiac diseases, arthritis, and other conditions are related to periodontitis.

Food particles gather between teeth, oral bacteria grow in this warm, moist environment. Those germs eventually infect the soft gum tissues and the infection travels through the bloodstream to various susceptible organs. More recently, preventive oral hygiene has made strides and canine tooth brushing is now recognized as a beneficial part of your companion’s grooming. Brushing is an easily accomplished task that takes only a minute or two. When employed several times a week it possibly prevents tartar and plaque formation. Sound teeth reduce bad breath and minimize the need for professional cleaning and extractions. Brushing makes good sense because you are avoiding veterinary fees and thereby saving dollars in bargain. A new periodontitis vaccine may prove to be a significant adjunctive tool for infected gums, but only brushing will remove existing debris from between teeth, prevent discoloration, or stop beginning tartar formation.

Wrinkle Care

Much like tooth brushing, wrinkle care should be a part of regular grooming. Much of a pug’s clown-like appearance and personality are her distinctive facial features, those muzzle wrinkles, and perhaps an extra one found on the hindmost part of her back. Those distinctive skin wrinkles may be a mixed blessing and they sometimes trap moisture, become inflamed and promote bacterial infection, which may cause inflammation, scratching, and bad odor. Preventive wrinkle care takes only a few seconds. Use a dry cotton swab and run it down into each wrinkle.

Eye and Ear Care

A pug’s large, prominent eyes and the wrinkles below them are very important and should be checked daily. Normal tearing carries moisture to your pug’s wrinkles and that moisture should be cleaned from her muzzle daily with a moist cotton ball, and dried with another cotton ball. Moisture may attract dust and dirt and result in conjunctivitis. If you note excessive tearing, or any yellow or orange mucoid eye drainage, call your pug’s veterinarian. Routine ear canal care is another facet of grooming. At least once a week pick up each of your pug’s ears and sniff carefully.

A musty odor may be an indication of excess wax formation that you can clean with a cotton ball lightly moistened with hydrogen peroxide. The peroxide will dissolve the wax and her head shaking afterward will cause the wax to be expelled from the canal. Clean the wax off her coat with a dry cotton ball or paper towel and remember to check her ears closely on your next grooming session.

Leg and Body Exam

Pick up and examine each foot for pad abnormalities and be sure she hasn’t picked up a burr or grass seed in the hair between her toes. Run your hand up and down her leg and across her belly and chest to check for skin tumors or the presence of parasites such as ticks. Quickly look at her anus and genital area for evidence of any problems located there. Set your pug on the floor, tell her what a good dog she is, and treat her to a morsels from your pocket.

c. Training

Pugs smart and have good memories. If they properly motivated-usually with food and kept trained, they will quickly learn. Expect your pug to learn undesirable behaviors more quickly than good ones. You can counter that tendency by giving your pug plenty of opportunities to do things right way and few opportunities to get in trouble. Just because your pug is isn’t smart doesn’t mean that he’s not going to be well behaved. Pugs are not the easiest dogs in the world to housetrain.

They’re small, which makes them inherently more difficult to housetrain than large dogs, which have a greater capacity to “hold”. Their size may not be the biggest obstacle to housetraining however, as Pugs tend to have a stubborn streak which makes them less than cooperative students. Skilled and experienced dog owners usually manage to housetrain their Pugs within 3 months of bringing their dog home. The majority of Pug owners however, often find housetraining a task that takes a year or even longer. If the idea of a year worth of poops and pee on the carpet isn’t tolerable to you, don’t get a Pug. In training consider these things:

* Don’t treat pugs as humans that they will do the things that you want in a single command.
* Do use different vocal tones
* Do use high pitched tones for praise and lower tones for commands
* Do train in a quiet area at first where distractions are kept minimum
* Do give your pugs name before any command involving movement such heel
* Do keep your training sessions short for fun for both of you
* Do end your training positive note with lots of praise
* Don’t repeat commands.
If it is ignored for the first time, it will be ignored the second and third as well

* Don’t use excessive physical punishment
* Don’t train when you are angry or tired
* Pugs are motivated on foods that have strong smells such as liver trats, sausages, cheese, and moist cat treats. The best food is cut up in bite-sized pieces, small enough so that your pug doesn’t have to take time out of training to stop and chew the treat.

Bibliographies:
Books
Belmonte, Brenda (2004). The Pug Handbook. Hong Kong: Barrons Publication Inc. Cunliffe, Juliet (2000). Pug. United Kingdom: Interpet Publishing Daglish, Eric Fitch (1976). Pugs. New York. Arco Publishing. Doherty, Filomena (2001). Pugs. Neptune City, NJ: T.F.H. Publication Inc. Maggitti, Phil (1994). Pugs (Barron’s Complete Pet Owner’s Manuals). Hong Kong: Barron’s Educational Series, Inc. Mount, Alison (2003). Living With a Pug. Singapore: Ringpress books. Rice, Dan (2009). Barron’s Dog Bibles: Pugs. New York, USA: Barron’s Educational Series, Inc. Thornton, Kim Cambell (2005). The Everything Pug Book: A Complete Guide to Raising Training and Caring for your Pug. United States of America: F+W Publication Inc. Trullinger, James W. (1972). The Complete Pug, 3d ed. United States: Howell Book House Dictionary

“Pug.” Oxford English Dictionary. Second Edition, 1989. Oxford University Press.


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