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Psychology Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Cognitive Interventions

The only thing that tells everyone apart from everyone else is each person’s genetic make-up. And there is only one exception and that would identical twins, because no two people are the same. This can be said true about the way we all think. There is no one person that thinks the same as the next person. People believe that we are all born innocent and that we are pure in thoughts and in behavior. There are many different factors that can and sometimes do influence how a person is controlled by his/her cognitive ability to think before acting. There are people who do a better than others can. There are people who have certain psychological problems that seek out…

Case Study Abnormal Psychology

Abnormal behavior relates to the influence of psychological factors, biological factors as well as the social factors referring to inadequate relationships. In the face of diverse definition, abnormal behavior refers to the deviating from norm, which norm is the typical behavior or characteristic of the population. As such, Jim behavior is abnormal because it violates moral and conventional mores of the society (Violates societal standards), as such causing social discomfort to others. For instance, Jim fails to recognize the social cues in conversation thereby annoying other interlocutors. Jim is this case is behaving in a manner counterproductive to his own well being by abstaining from marrying and social relationships, which is maladaptive (Psychology facts, 2007). Jim behavior is statistically abnormal…

Counselling Psychology

From the term’s meaning itself, “existence” is the primary keyword that identifies the idealisms imposed through understanding the deep meaning of existential personality. It could not be denied then that unlike other theories of psychology and human behavior, existential personality theory has not been founded by any prominent personality in the field of human sciences, rather, the theory was introduced as a collaborative understanding that has been brought to existence through close observation of several individuals who have definite purpose in living in comparison to those who may have the hardest time identifying the reasons as to why they are living. With the many things that identify human life at present, “purpose” is one particular aspect that keeps one on…

Experimental Psychology

Remembering has to do with being able to recall information, being able to retrieve information kept in the log-term memory. Forgetting occurs when information that was encoded and kept in a person’s long-term memory is lost. This may occur gradually or spontaneously. Repeating or reviewing information reduces forgetting rates. Theories of forgetting include cue-dependent forgetting, organic, trace decay, interference theories and decay theory. Retroactive interference is when the past memory interferes with the later memory; Recalling depends on memory, retrieving the material that was learned. It is closely related to recognition, being in a position to spot any material that one has once encountered. It is thought that the rate of forgetting is highest soon after the learning task is…

Professional Identity

Angelle Hobbs Joanna is a 16-year-old eleventh grader, the oldest of four children. Her best friend had died suddenly of leukemia the previous year. Presently, Joanna’s grades have begun to drop and she cuts class. She feels she should have done more to help her best friend. Joanna’s mother has been contacted for a parent conference, but she works two jobs to financially support her children. Joanna’s homeroom teacher is very concern and refers her to the school counselor. This heartbreaking event has had tremendous implications on Joanna. I trust that an experience, as such, leads someone to initially choose counseling as a profession. Counseling entails a provision of assistance and guidance sessions, provided by a trained professional who assists…

Social psychology

The term ‘attitude’ has been referred to as social psychology’s most indispensable concept, and the study of attitudes has dominated social psychology since the 1920s (Allport, 1935, p. 798; McGuire, 1986). In the early 19th century, attitude research was considered to be of such fundamental importance to social psychology that both were thought to be one and the same, and each to be the definition of the other (Watson, 1930; Hogg & Vaughan, 2011, p. 148). While social psychologists’ interest in attitude research may be seen to have somewhat waned over recent decades, attitudes are again the focus of much attention for social psychologists, with a recent review going so far as to define attitudes as “the crown jewel of…

Foundations of teaching and learning

I am going to deliver a lesson to my students, which will include the three main schools of learning, Behaviourism, Cognitivism and Humanism. I will incorporate these ways of learning into my lesson plans to ensure my students are offered a range of learning strategies. “The behaviourist learning theory suggests that we learn by receiving a stimulus that provokes a response. So long as the response is reinforced in some way that response will be repeated. ” (Reece and Walker 2007) I think behaviourism is important within the classroom as it is controlled Education, where the teacher takes control of the class and the environment that the students are in. Behaviourism is the educational theory that is based on the…

Should Rewards and Punishments Be Used to Motivate Students’ Learning

I believe that rewards and punishments do play a key part in sustaining children’s interest and motivation to learn. However, I feel there are other key factors and methods that could be used to greater effect and am inclined to disagree with the question at hand. a) There are many educational theories on the topic of motivation but I believe the Self-Determination and Self-Efficacy theories cover some key aspects that deserve to be mentioned. The Self-Determination theory, in a nutshell, discusses the extent to which people validate their actions upon reflection and engage in them willingly. It assumes that every individual seeks personal development and undertakes challenges to build up their self-esteem (Rochester, 2008). According to Eggen and Kauchak, learners…

My Values, Beliefs, Clinical Gestalt with Individuals and Systems

Becoming a successful clinician is like a work in progress, a clinician should never consider it completed. There is always room to learn, to grow, and develop while working in the Human Services field. The knowledge that a clinician learns comes not only from education but also from experiences and time working in the field. Overtime, a clinician can expect to look at his or her own beliefs, values, and experiences as well as family, cultural dynamics, and background. The main reason a person continues to learn and obtain knowledge, is because of the array of clients a clinician sees. In the textbook, I had to complete exercises that discussed our values and beliefs and how they will affect and…

Founding Fathers of Psychology

These four men that we are about to talk about are some of the, if not the most important people in psychology. One developed psychology as a school of thought and published the first book on the subject which opened the door for another to develop his theories. Years after the book came out another thinker was inspired to look into the human mind and this time with a more scientifically critical mind and approach, there was a common reason people had problem, he just was not positive what. This lead two of his students to move on and one focus on the individual versus what the majority has a problem with and made sure that treatment focused on them….

The Possible Limitations of Team Building

Team building as an organizational development intervention can have its limitations. The first problem may result from a team leader failing to identify the correct priorities for a team’s attention. (1) The leader may choose to lead the team in a skills-based team building exercise, such as learning how to give criticism or running effective team meetings. (2) However, if the reason why this team is not working together effectively deals simply with trust issues or personality clashes, that may be what the leader wants to address first. There are different types of team building exercises based on the different types of problems a team experiences. The success of team building has a lot to do with the willingness of…

Striving for Perfection

Many people strive to become a perfectionist, but becoming a perfectionist takes hard work and dedication. Perfectionist have to be very focus driving because of the mentally challenges that come alone with being perfect. Those who think of perfection as being perfect and immaculate has to understand perfectionist are capable of making mistakes and irrational judgments. While individuals plan to become a Perfectionist, could also lead to disappointment and become shame because so much time is being consumed with anxiety to reach their planned goals. If you think about what society has done for individuals to compete with, no one could ever become perfect. John Lennon beat his first wife, Martin Luther King Jr. had extramarital affairs…Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Einstein,…

Personal Identity – Philosophy

It is easy to see oneself as the same person we were ten, twenty, or fifty years ago. We can define identity through our physical presence, life experiences, memories, and mental awareness of self. One can testify our persistence as a person through our existence as a person. But what makes us the same person? In this paper, I will argue for the “simple” view of the persistence of identity – that it is impossible to determine what single thing that makes us the same person over time. I will support my claim with the refutation of the main complex view claims of the body, brain and psychological continuity criterion. Entrenched in the “simple” view is the idea that personal…

Choking in Sports

In 2007, Reeves, Tenenbaum, and Lidor conducted research in order to study what causes talented athletes to often fail to perform to the best of their abilities when placed under stressful situations. The purpose of the study was to discover whether athletes who participate in self-consciousness training adapt to pressure situations better than players who do not. To measure this, the researchers examined “choking” during kicking a soccer ball with participants of two different skill levels, low-skill and high-skill. The participants had to complete two different tasks, kicking a soccer penalty and a breakaway. They were placed under two pressure situations, both low and high, and the experimenters also had three different training conditions – single task, dual task, and…

Pyschlogical Analysis of Zombie Apocalypse Survivors

The door slams shut as you force your weight against it. Two people whom you have never met before, merely joined during your sprint, grab the largest object in the room and wedge it in front of the door. A second later the fist of the undead outside pound on the door in attempts to get in. “We have to get out of here! ” one of the others screams immediately. But why? It seems that whether it be a decrepit cabin in the woods or a home or a mall; nothing seems to be good enough for the survivors. Step one of a survival plan always seems to start with the word Escape. A casual movie buff may simply…

The Role of Behavior and Cognition in Learning

Learning is an integral part of psychological development. Many perspectives exist concerning learning. Two areas of interest in psychology concerning learning are behavior and cognition. Two theories that explain fundamental learning is classical conditioning and operant conditioning. These two theories also show the correlations of learning and behavior. Theories concerning the relationship between cognition and learning are of particular interest in psychology. Some theorists believe behavioral changes are the direct results of learning because the effects learning have on behavior and the relationship of cognition concerning learning. Defining learning and the role of behavior in learning The definition of learning has two aspects concerning behavior. First learning creates a permanent change in behavior comparatively. Second, learning is the behavioral potential…

Abnormal Psychology Maladaptive Behavior

Briefly describe each of the major theoretical perspectives in maladaptive behavior. Which of the perspectives do you believe is the ‘right’ perspective, or is there a ‘right’ perspective? Biological Perspective: Suggests that all disorders physical or behavioral have biological causes. Causes may lie in heredity, genetic accident, or bodily infection, or trauma(Sarason, 2005) Psychodynamic Perspective: Point of view that emphasizes thoughts and emotions as the most important determiners of behavior. Basic ideas come from the work of Sigmund Freud(Sarason, 2005). Behavioral Perspective: A theory of behavior based on the idea that much of a person’s behavior is learned rather than genetically based. According to this view, behavior is based on past experiences with the environment(Sarason, 2005). Cognitive Perspective: Point of…

Behavioral and Social/Cognitive Approaches to Forming Habits

Behavioral and Social/Cognitive Approaches to Forming Habits According to the American Psychological Association, “Obesity is a condition marked by excess accumulation of body fat. Genetic factors play a key role in obesity, but so do behavioral factors — especially eating too much and exercising too little. ” Behavioral and social/cognitive theories approach the habit from two different perspectives and both theories can explain reasoning behind the habit. However creating a plan that will apply operant conditioning can change a habit. A child can be in a normal weight range up until a specific age, once that child turned ten they began to gain weight. As a child, the environment around them tends to be a major influence on behavior; however…

Examination of Clinical Psychology

Clinical psychology is a broad science that involves psychologists ensuring the mental well-being of a patient. Its focus is diagnosing, treating, and if possible, averting psychological disorders. The field of clinical psychology applies to every demographic from young children to the elderly, families or individuals, and one’s socioeconomic status is not a factor in whether he or she should receive treatment. Clinical psychology deals with a broad range of specialties, including individuals who have been diagnosed with disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder or those who are coping with personal issues, such as being fired from his or her place of employment or going through a divorce. Psychologists in this field offer patients the opportunity to voice his or…

Psychology

Psychodynamic: One advantage of psychodynamic therapy is the relationship that is formed between the psychologist and the patient. The patient is able to form trust in the psychologist which makes it easier for them to talk about their problems. Another advantage is the ability for the psychologist to give a human opinion. They can tell the client what they think is best for them specific to the client’s needs. Client-centered: The advantage of this is the fact that the client is the one to guide him or herself. The psychologist is only there to channel the person’s thoughts but not to judge, direct, or interpret them. Secondly, this procedure is very encouraging. It gives the client a feeling of acceptance…

Mary Whiton Calkins

In the early days of psychology there were few female psychologists who had any type of impact on the field of psychology. There was sex discrimination and it was a common belief that women were inferior to men. Mary Whiton Calkins was able to beat the odds and have a long lasting legacy in psychology. She is considered one of the pioneers in psychology and is credited with a major theoretical contribution of self-psychology, which was centered on the idea that all consciousness is personal. Calkins overcame discrimination from both students and scholars and succeeded in inventing a procedure that was historic; paired associate learning, which has become the standard method in cognitive research (Goodwin, 2008). Mary Whiton Calkins was…

Mom Is Most Influential in My Life

People have had someone to influence them in their lifetime at some time or another, but my biggest influence in my life is my mom. I can’t but admire my mom’s strength and her wisdom. I am a strong believer in the saying “like father”, “like son” goes with both genders, however, I do think that this is more a result of following example rather than a result genetics. It is common knowledge that not everyone is perfect, even heroes, and in realizing this I know. Although I wish to be like my mom in most ways I do not at all. This realization may be one of the most important things I have learned, my mom has taught me…

Development and Diversity

When a child is conceived they begin to develop in the mother whom and continue to develop until adulthood. Today we look at these developments and find new ways to teach children that all develop at different rates. Throughout history child development was ignored and little attention was paid to the advantages in their early abilities such as language usage, and physical growth that occurs during childhood and adolescence. Throughout the years there has been many people have come up with theories that support the growth of the development of children. I will talk about one of these theories here. B. F. Skinner, who carried out experimental work mainly in comparative psychology from the 1930s to the 1950s, but remained…

My Future Plans and Expectation

As a child, I found my self looking up to many people and admiring those that had accomplished so many great things in their lives. I grew up in a household of eight people; I am the fifth child of six. I never thought about my future plans and expectation growing up. I started thinking about my future when I was in high school and then after. I never thought that I would finish high school. Many friends and family have told me that I was not cut out to be in school. I never imagined ever finishing something that everyone thought that I couldn’t do. I must work really hard to give myself a better future. Who would have…

Corporal Punishment: an Effective Tool in Child Discipline

“For every action, there’s a reaction”, states Newton’s law of motion. This obvious truth doesn’t apply to just physics alone. It can also be applied to the human personality. When applying it to a child’s behavior, especially from a very early age, children need to be taught that their actions will have consequences. Being the sponges that they are, sometimes they absorb bad behaviors. Since they are inexperienced and need guidance throughout their life, there are different methods of discipline that can help correct their bad behaviors and actions. One way that is often effective is by explaining to the child why certain behaviors are not acceptable. But when a simple explanation isn’t enough, or when the child refuses to…

Psychological Testing

There comes a time when we all come across a specific test such as school tests, driving test, or even as simple as food tasting test. However, there is a difference between regular tests and testing’s when referring to psychological testing. There are several different psychological tests that many psychiatrists, psychologists, and school counselors use to determine certain abilities, however each of the tests are used for a specific purpose. It is vital for the individuals to contain high knowledge of the tests before applying it to others. Defining “Test” According to the medical dictionary, psychological tests are defined as written, visual and verbal evaluations administered to assess the cognitive and emotional functions of children and adults (Psychological Tests, 2012)….

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) one of the most popular personality tests today is often the standard to which others are compared (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010). It was designed to aid in the diagnosis and prediction of mental illness in patients 14 years of age and older, in a more objective manner. The MMPI is atheoretical and therefore was not created based on a specific theoretical background. It initially contained 566 true and false questions divided into 10 clinical scales, which were derived through research of various sources including personality items that had been previously published by others, textbooks and psychiatric case studies and reports (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010). The construction of the test relied heavily on empirically derived…

Is Your Glass Half Full or Half Empty

Shakespeare quotes “there is nothing good or bad but thinking makes it so. ” These are words of wisdom, as Shakespeare had discovered centuries ago that are still relative to the daily events that occur for the average twenty-first century adult. People often waste too much time thinking about small negative aspects of their day which creates added stress that is not necessary. Like over analyzing every detail of a minor nuisance you’ve encountered. Stress from daily negative occurrences throughout the day everyday add up and have significant harmful effects on mental and physical health. Stress, however is subjective and lies in the eye of the beholder. Therefore stress really does not exist at all, it is all in your…

Defining Abnormality

Psychologist, for years have given their theory on normal and abnormal behavior, but all the studies they have done seems to give more evidence to prove what make each individual do what they do and why. In the normal and abnormal behavior we use all research and take all of its studies into consideration and apply it to why such behaviors have occurred. Reading this paper you can see that there are many experiments that challenge the theory of behavior no matter if it’s normal or abnormal. We will clarify some of the challeges as we define and classify both normal and abnormal behavior when we look at the challenges in Culture, gender and sexual preferences/practices and religion. Cultural normal…

Obesity in African American Culture

?Obesity has more that just a physical effect on the body. Obesity also greatly affects the mental and emotional part of the body as well. Although you cannot directly correlate metal and emotional health to obesity, you can see that its effects do in fact play a role in the mental and emotional health of an obese person. While the effects of obesity do indeed reach out to all races, it is easy to see that mental and emotional problems from obesity in the African American culture are present in the culture. Depression, anxiety, and discrimination, are all results that are caused by obesity in the African American community. Many people are familiar with depression, whether it be a friend…