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Psychology Vocab Essay

Anal stage: the stage at which children advocate erotic pleasure with the elimination process Archetype: an inherited idea, based on the experiences of one’s ancestors, which shapes one’s perception of the world Altered states of consciousness: conscious level, preconscious level, and unconscious level Amnesia: a loss of memory that may occur after a blow to the head or as a result of brain damage Biofeedback: the process of learning to control bodily states with the help of machines monitoring the states to be controlled Bipolar: a disorder in which a person’s mood inappropriately alternates between feelings of mania and depression Client centered therapy: an approach developed by Carl Rogers that reflects the belief that the client and therapist are partners in therapy Conditioning: a type of learning that involves stimulus response connections in which the response is conditional to the stimulus Central nervous system: Spinal cord and the brain

Classical conditioning: a learning procedure in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a neutral stimulus Collective unconscious: the part of the mind that inherited instincts, urges, and memories common to all people Consciousness: an individual’s state of awareness, including a person’s feelings, sensations, ideas, and perceptions Compulsion: an apparently irresistible urge to repeat an act or engage in ritualistic behavior such as hand washing Cross- sectional study: research method in which data is collected from groups of participants of different ages and compares so that conclusions can be drawn about differences due to age CS (Conditioned stimulus): a once neutral event that elicits a given response after a period of training in which it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus CR (conditioned response): a response by the conditioned stimulus;

it is similar to the unconditioned response, but not identical in magnitude or amount Defense mechanism: Certain specific means by which the ego unconsciously protects itself against unpleasant impulses or circumstances Dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality): a person exhibits two or more personality states, each with its own patterns of thinking and behaving Dependent variable: changes in relation to the independent variable Discrimination: the ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli.

2. The unequal treatment of individuals on the basis of their race, ethnic group, age, gender, or membership in another category rather than on the basis of individual characteristics Depression: a psychological disorder characterized by extreme sadness, an inability to concentrate, and feelings of helplessness and dejection Superego: the part of the personality that is the source of conscience and contracts the socially undesirable impulses of the id Dopamine: Involved in learning, emotional, arousal, and movement Eidetic memory: the ability to remember with great accuracy visual information on the basis of short term exposure Extinction: in classical conditioning, the gradual disappearance of a conditional response because the reinforcement is withheld or because the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus

Endocrine system: a chemical communication system using hormones, by which messages are sent through the blood stream, EEG (electroencephalograph): a machine used to record the electoral activity of large portions of the brain Extravert: an outgoing, active person who directs his or her energies and interests toward other people and things Electroshock therapy: also called (ECT), an electrical shock is sent through the brain to try to reduce symptoms of mental disturbance Ego: the part of the personality that is in touch with reality and strives to meet the demands of the id and the superego in socially acceptable ways Free association: a Freudian technique used to examine the unconscious; the patients instructed to say whatever comes into his or her mind Formal operations:

the person is able to solve abstract problems Fixed ratio schedule: a pattern of reinforcement in which a specific number of correct responses is required before reinforcement can be obtained Fixed interval schedule: a pattern of reinforcement in which a specific amount of time must elapse before a response will elicit reinforcement Functional fixedness: a mental set characterized by the inability to imagine new functions for familiar objects Genital Stage: Freud’s fifth and final psychosexual stage during which an individual’s sexual satisfaction depends as much on giving pleasure as on receiving it Hypothalamus: regulates the autonomic nervous system

Hallucinations: perceptions that have no direct external cause Hypothesis: an assumption or prediction about behavior that is tested through scientific research Identity crisis: A period of inner conflict during which adolescents worry intensely about who they are Id: in psychoanalytic theory, that part of the unconscious personality that contains our needs, drives, and instincts, as well as repressed material Independent variable: experimenters change or alter so they can observe its effects Imprinting: inherited tendencies or responses that are displayed by newborn animals when they encounter new stimuli in their environment Introvert: a reserved, withdrawn person who is more preoccupied with his or her inner thoughts and feelings than in what is going on around him or her Imitation: The third way of learning

Latency Stage: the fourth stage of Freud’s psychosexual development at which sexual desires are pushed into the background and the child becomes involved in exploring the world and learning new skills Long term memory: the storage of information over extended periods of time Longitudinal study: research method in which data is collected about a group of participants over a number of years to assess how certain characteristics change or remain the same during development Lithium carbonate: a chemical used to counteract mood swings of bipolar disorder Maturation: the internally programmed growth of a child

Meditation: the focusing of attention to clear one’s mind and produce relaxation Modeling: the process of learning behavior through observation and imitation of others Mnemonic devices: techniques of memorizing information by forming vivid associations or images, which facilitate recall and decrease forgetting Negative reinforcement: increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs Neurosis: One of the most commonly used diagnostic distinctions Oral Stage: Freud’s first stage of psychosexual development, in which infant’s associate erotic pleasure with the mouth Object permanence: Child’s realization that an object exists even when he or she cannot see or touch it Operant conditioning: a form of learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corresponding increases or decreases in the likelihood that similar actions will occur again

Obsession: a recurring thought or image that seems to be beyond control OCD (obsessive compulsive disorder): an anxiety disorder consisting of obsessions and compulsions Oedipus complex: seems more like a literary conceit that a thesis worthy of a scientifically minded psychologist Psychosexual stages: 1. Oral stage, 2.anal stage, 3.phallic stage, 4.latancy stage, 5.ganital stage Psychosocial stages: 1. Trust vs. mistrust, 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt, 3.initiative vs. guilt, 4. Industry vs. inferiority, 5. Identity vs. role confusion, 6. Intimacy vs. isolation, 7. Generativity vs. stagnation, 8. Ego integrity vs. Despair Pre-operational stage: emerges when the child begins to use mental images symbols to understand things Pituitary gland: “master gland”

Psychosis: One of the most commonly used diagnostic distinctions Projective test: an unstructured test of personality in which a person is asked to respond freely, giving his or her own interpretation of various ambiguous stimuli Phallic stage: Freud’s third psychosexual stage, children associate sexual pleasure with their genitals Psychology: the scientific, systematic study of behaviors and mental processes Psychiatry: a branch of medicine that deals with mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders Psychotherapy: a general term for the application of psychological principles and techniques for any treatment used by therapists to help troubled individuals overcome their problems and disorders Positive reinforce: a stimulus that increases the likelihood that a response will occur again Psychoanalysis: a form of therapy aimed at making patients aware of their unconscious motives so that they can gain control over their behavior and free themselves of self-defeating patterns Reliability: the ability of a test to give the same results under similar conditions REM sleep: a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, a high level of brain activity, a deep relaxation of the muscles, and dreaming

Reinforcement schedule: an important factor in operant conditioning Random sample: One way to avoid a nonrepresentative sample Rorschach inkblot cards: 10 cards with inkblot designs and a system for interpreting responses Self –actualization: the humanist term for realizing one’s unique potential Shaping: technique of operant conditioning in which the desired behavior is “molded” by first rewarding any act similar to that behavior and then requiring ever-closer approximations to the desired behavior before giving the reward Short term memory: memory that is limited in capacity to about seven items and in duration by the subject active rehearsal Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after some time has passed Selective attention: Focusing\ on only one detail of many

Schizophrenia: a group of severe psychotic disorders characterized by confused and disconnected thoughts, emotions, behavior, and perceptions Separation anxiety: whenever the child is suddenly separated from the mother Superego: the part of the personality that is the source of conscience and contracts the socially undesirable impulses of the id Sensorimotor: the infant uses schemas that primarily involve his body and sensations Surrogate mothers: substitute mothers

TAT (Thematic Apperception Test): This test consists of a series of pictures Thalamus: major relay station of the brain Unconscious: the part of the mind that holds mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories of which we are unaware but that strongly influences conscious behaviors UCR (Unconditioned response): an organism, automatic or natural reaction to a stimulus UCS (unconditioned stimulus): an event that elicits a certain predictable response without previous training Variable- ratio schedule: a pattern of reinforcement in which a specific amount of time must elapse before a response will elicit reinforcement Variable- interval schedule: a pattern of reinforcement in which changing amounts of time must elapse before a response will obtain reinforcement Validity: the ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure


Carl Jung: (1875-1961) believed that people try to develop their potential as well as handle their instinctual urges. He distinguished between personal unconscious and the collective unconscious Alfred Adler: (1870-1937) believed that the driving force in people’s lives is a desire to overcome their feelings of inferiority Sigmund Freud: (1856-1939) believed that our conscious experiences are only the tip of the iceberg, that beneath the surface are primitive biological urges that are in conflict with the requirements of society and morality Erick Erickson: (1902-1994) believed that the need for social approval is just as important as a child’s sexual and aggressive urges Abraham Maslow: (1908-1970) tried to base his theory of personality on studies of healthy, creative, self actualizing people who fully utilize their talents and potential rather than on studies of disturbed individuals Carl Rogers: (1902-1987) believed that many people suffer from a conflict between what they value in themselves and what they believe that other people value in them John B. Watson :( 1878-1958) psychology should concern itself only with the observable facts of behavior.

Said that all behavior is the result of conditioning and occurs because the appropriate stimulus is present in the environment Ivan Pavlov: (1849 -1936) charted another new course for psychological investigation. Demonstrated that a neutral stimulus can cause a formerly unrelated response B.F. Skinner :( 1904-1990) introduced the concept of reinforcement. Attempted to show how his laboratory techniques might be applied to society as a whole Albert Bandura: people direct their own behavior by their choice of models. Harry Harlow: (1905- 1981) studied the relationship between mother and child in a species closer to humans, the rhesus monkeys Galen: Identified four personality characteristics called melancholic, sanguine, choleric, and phlegmatic Alfred Binet:

Karen Horney: (1885-1952) stressed the importance of basic anxiety. She believes that if a child is raised in an atmosphere of love and security, that child could avoid Freud’s psychosexual parent child conflict b Lawrence Kohlberg: His studies show how important being able to see other people’s points of view is to social development in general and to moral development of moral reasoning

Jean Piaget: Discovered that knowledge builds as children grow. Children develop logic and think differently at different ages Lorenz Konrad: (1903- 1989) became a pioneer in the field of animal learning. He discovered that baby geese become attached to their mothers in a sudden, virtually permanent learning process called imprinting Stanley Milgram: conducted the most famous investigation of obedience in 1963. Wanted to determine whether participants would administer painful shocks to others merely because an authority figure had instructed them to do so James Marcia: main contribution is in clarifying the sources and nature of the adolescent identity crisis Philip Zimbardo: made the Zimbardo experiment

Solomon Asch: designed what has become a classic experiment to test conformity to pressure from one’s peers Hermann Rorschach: made the inkblot test  Wilhelm Wundt: he proposed that psychological experience is composed of compounds, much like the ones found in chemistry Phillipe Pinel: Father of scientific psychiatry  Dorothea Dix: Chief spokesperson for reform

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