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Psychology – Pretty Little Liars Style Essay

Psychology The science of behavior and mental processes Nature vs. Nurture The controversy over the impact which genes and experiences have on psychological behaviors. Just like in the Bad Seed (performed at Rosewood High,) psychologists wonder if evil is something inherited or learned. Basic Research Science whose main goal is to increase the scientific knowledge base. Applied Research Scientific studies which aim to solve practical problems, like forensics being used to determine if the Liars’ evidence is real. Clinical Psychology A branch of Psychology which studies psychological disorders.

Mona would have to have seen a clinical psychologist… that chick cray. Psychiatry A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders, with physicians who often give medicine to their patients. Empiricism The concept that knowledge comes from experience via the senses, while science comes from observation and experimentation. Jenna had lost the sense of sight, so in a strange, empirical sense, she could be less knowledgeable than the Liars… if not, she certainly is more crazy. Hindsight Bias The tendency to believe that after a known outcome a person had known it all along.

Reminiscent of people claiming they had known Toby is part of the A team… It can’t be true!! False Consensus Effect The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors. Similar to how Spencer completely opened up to Toby, assuming that there was no way he was involved with A. Illusory Correlation Surely connected to the phrase “correlation is not causation,” this is the perception of a relationship where none exists. Similar to how Noel kept imagining a relationship between himself and Aria.

Independent Variable The experimental factor which is being manipulated and whose effect is being studied… ust like how A manipulates the Liars to watch them crack. Dependent Variable The experimental factor which is being measured. A manipulates the Liars to see how far she can get them to crack. Evolutionary Approach The study of psychology using the principles of natural selection. A seems to follow Darwin’s theories, eliminating the weakest of the NAT club one by one. Biological Approach The study of Psychology linking psychological progresses and biology, such as genetics. This is similar to A’s belief that Aria would have an affair with Ezra simply because her father had also had a student-teacher relationship.

Behavior Genetics Approach A theory which determines how our environment influences our individual differences. The Liars all had secrets similar to the ones their parents had kept, be it lying, cheating, or stealing. Psychoanalytic Approach Studies using Freud’s theories on how the unconscious drives our behavior. Humanistic Approach Emphasize the growth potential of healthy people…. such as the ever beautiful Keegan Allen. Structuralism An early school of psychology which used introspection to explore the structure of the human mind. Similar to how Dr.

Sullivan asked Hanna to think back about her relationship with Alison to help her move past her death. Functionalism A school of psychology which focused on how mental process allow an organism to adapt, survive, and flourish. In the movie Psycho (scenes from which were replicated in the episode “unmAsked”) Bates had become his mother in order to cope with his life and adapt to his condition. Human Factors Psychology The study of how people and machines interact. For instance, how the Liars are so reliant on their cellphones, even though that’s what brings them misery.

Bottoms-Up Processing Perception, or analysis of sensory information, which begins with the sense receptor and works up to the brains integration of sensory information. Aria and Emily had first seen Caleb talking on the phone, and after listening to him talk, they then interpreted his conversation to mean that he was lying to Hanna. Top-Down Processing A form of higher level mental process which constructs perceptions based on experience and expectation, more similar to how Spencer learns information. Sensory Adaptation Diminished sensitivity in consequence of constant stimulation.

Similar to Paige’s concern over the fact that Emily has become so used to “A” that she no longer realizes the danger she constantly is in. Associative Learning Learning that two events occur together, typically stimuli and a consequence. Similar to the Liars becoming convinced that every ad thing that happens to them is linked to “A”. Behaviorism The view that Psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Many people had believed that Mona was not truly sick because of her mental state, but merely because of her objective behavior.

Classical Conditioning A learning style where an organism associates stimuli. Pavlov’s study of dogs salivating was a large factor. The Liars had received texts from “A” and got scared, now simply hearing their phone go off is enough to scare them. Unconditioned Response The unlearned response in classical conditioning, in this case, the fear behind the texts. Unconditioned Stimulus The stimulus which naturally triggers a response. In this case, “A”. Conditioned Response The learned response to a previously neutral stimulus. The Liars learned to fear their cellphones.

Stimulus An irrelevant stimulus which eventually becomes a stimulus in classical conditioning. In this case the Liars’ cell phones. Conditioned Generalization The tendency once a response is conditioned, for similar stimuli to issue the same response. For instance, if the Liars were to then fear their computers and other technology as well. Acquisition The initial stage in classical conditioning where the stimulus first elicits a response. Like when the Liars first jumped after hearing Aria’s cell phone ring at Alison’s funeral.

Extinction The diminishing of a conditioned response, such as after Mona was found to be “A. ” Operant Conditioning A learning style where behavior is strengthened following reinforcement or diminished by punishment. Like “A” terrorizing the Liars to punish them for how they acted around Alison. Law of Effect Thordike’s principles that behavior followed by favorable consequences become more likely and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely. For instance, Byron stopped having affairs after Alison blackmailed him in punishment for his actions.

Operant Chamber The “Skinner Box” used to teach rats to hit a bar in order to obtain food or water. Shaping An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal, like guiding mice to a specific area of a cage. “A” does this to lure Spencer into the fun house at the founders day festival. Fixed-Interval Schedule In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specific amount of time. Similar to having a paycheck and a specified pay day, which Ashley did have, but it just didn’t seem to be enough.

Variable-Ratio Schedule A schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at an unpredictable amount of responses. Similar to Lucas and his gambling problem. Latent Learning Subject matter which is learned but not demonstrated, such as Mona pretending to be less intelligent then she really is. Overjustification Act When you reward someone for doing something they already like to do, such as Emily winning anchor. They won’t see it as a reward, but that doesn’t mean former psychopaths like Paige won’t see it that way. Neuron A nerve cell, the basic building block of the nervous system.

Just like how Alison was the main building block of the Liars. Dendrites The branching extensions of a neuron that receive impulses, such as the Liars receiving information from A. Axon The extension of a neuron through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands. Toby was an extension of Spencer who sent out messages as A. Myelin Sheath A layer of tissue that encases neurons. It enables faster transmission of neural impulses. The Liars’ families and their secrets protect the Liars, yet A uses them to get across their message more clearly.

Threshold The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural response. After finding Toby was A, Spencer’s threshold for tolerating Mona sunk to an all-time low. Acetylcholine A neurotransmitter that triggers muscle contraction. Such as the neurotransmitter that makes Pretty Little Liars fans twitch every time Toby comes on screen. Central Nervous System The brain and the spinal cord, which are linked to survival… something Alison was terrible at. Autonomic Nervous System The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the internal organs.

Such as the gorgeous boys of the show who control the hearts of the Liars. Sympathetic Nervous System The part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body. Parasympathetic Nervous System The part of the autonomic nervous system which calms the body. Medulla The area of the brain that controls breathing and heart beats. Sensation The process of sensory receptors receiving stimulant energies from the environment. This can be analogous with the Liars gaining clues to A’s identity. Perception The process of interpreting sensory information to recognize objects and events.

Analogous with interpreting clues to determine who A is. Psychophysics The study of the relationship between physical characteristics of stimuli, such as intensity, and the psychological experience of them. Absolute Threshold The minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus half of the time. The absolute threshold for Pretty Little Liars fans is low considering the intensity of their cliffhangers. Subliminal Something below the absolute threshold for conscious awareness. The clues that are in the show are subliminal while being watched, but only make sense when considered with hindsight bias.

Weber’s Law The principal that two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage to be able to tell the difference. Apparently the difference between Alison and her twin are too minimal to pass the Liars’ threshold. Sensory Adaptation Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation. After the blow of finding out Toby was A, it really shouldn’t surprise me that Spencer would join the A team as well. Optic Nerve The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain. Something Jenna lacks. Sensory Interaction The concept that senses influence each other.

While Jenna was blind, her lack of vision altered her taste for food. Selective Attention Focusing attention on one stimulus, such as Spencer ignoring Alex at Homecoming to pay attention to Emily and Toby. Perspectives/Approaches Methods of Research Social Psychology Biological Bases of Behavior Development Learning, Cognition, Language, Intelligence Sensation/Perception Motivation/Emotion States of Consciousness Personality Theories Abnormal Psychology People Foot-In-The-Door Theory The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.

This would make it easy for the A-Team to attract followers. As soon as they agree to send one taunting text to the Liars as revenge on Alison, the next thing you know they’re running over Hanna with a car. Social Facilitation Improved performance of tasks in the presence of others, often occurs with simple or well-learned tasks, but not with difficult or unmastered ones. When Toby and Spencer ran together, they probably ran faster and longer than if they had been alone.

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