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Psychology and Social Situations Essay

Providing incentive for individuals to establish a carpool system or take the bus instead will motivate them to resort to these resolutions although it has been unsuccessful. The government and other organizations that campaign against overdependence on private vehicles which contribute to heavy traffic should not expect that simply asking the people to share rides and take buses in order to lessen the number of vehicles on the road will work.

People should be given incentives in adhering to the requests of concerned organizations, such as free fare or transportation allowances for the people. Organizations and establishments concentrated on a specific location should grant employees with free rides on shuttles that will take them to and from work everyday. This allows individuals to understand that sharing rides and taking the buses will save them the fare and lessen inconveniences caused by heavy traffic. 2. From this particular situation, we may deduce the disparity of knowledge and competencies displayed by children.

Individual differences also cause differences on the rate of performance within the classroom, such that there are those that excel and those who fail depending on the cognitive faculties. Assignments are provided by teachers not only to reinforce learning and introduce the succeeding lesson, but also to give children the chance to catch up and experience success through home-based activities that allow them to learn at their own pace. Children who are identified to be the lowest-achieving in class think about their chance of pulling up their grades by spending more time on their assignments and excelling through them.

This is the same reason why excellent performers do not spend more time on their homework, because they already have experienced success within the classroom setting. 3. Providing rewards is a good way of motivating children and reinforcing learning. There are various forms of rewards that teachers will be able to use including tangible rewards. Although concrete objects are considered as rewards, they should be given in moderation. Teachers should look for other forms of rewards such as praises and commendations, exemptions from school work or activities, and other types of non-tangible rewards.

The danger of utilizing concrete objects as rewards is that children will not be able to learn the value of maintaining desirable learning behavior in class. Every action that they take will depend on the presence of a tangible reward at all times. In this case, desirable learning behaviors are not reinforced and sustained throughout the learning process, and children will only choose to perform well and exhibit good behavior when they see that there will be tangible rewards made available for them after doing so.

To address this situation, academic institutions should consider setting standards and guidelines on how teachers should provide rewards, stressing the need to lessen the use of concrete objects but rather utilizing non-tangible rewards that create emphasis on inherent changes and display on desirable learning behavior and excellent learning performances. B. Psychological Disorders 1. The classification of abnormal behavior stems from the need to appropriately determine the medical and professional methods and strategies that will be implemented in order to address problems associated with the variety of abnormal behavior.

The classification system of abnormal behavior, particularly the DSM-IV established by the American Psychiatric Association or APA, is utilized in order to provide a clear illustration or image of the kind or type of behavior exhibited by an individual. The DSM-IV utilizes five axes that are utilized to categorize behavior, solidifying them into a profile that provides information on the dimensions of particular behaviors. Utilizing classification systems, such as DSM-IV, although convenient also has flaws or disadvantages, intensifying the difficulty of assessing and classifying behavior.

For instance, since the DSM-IV utilizes five axes in categorizing behavior, it becomes a limited means of understanding the dynamics of behavior. Classifying behavior into five categories does not really border on reliability and validity since behavior will not always meet all the criteria of each category. 2. When one is diagnosed with psychological or mental disorders, this means that there is something nonstandard and uncharacteristic about an individual’s way of thinking and behavior.

Having a disorder mean that an individual’s life, particularly his functioning, is influenced by its effects building problems and difficulties along the way. The diagnosis will point to possible causes, whether the disorder is caused by biological factors, environmental factors, and such, which affects one’s ability to work efficiently, socialize with other people or become integrated into society under normal circumstances, etc.

After being diagnosed with a psychological or mental disorder, it will also mean that an individual will need to seek professional help in order to determine the root of the problem and disorder and identify possible solutions in order to resolve them. 3. Perhaps it is better to be wrongly diagnosed as having a mental disorder even if one actually does not than the other way around because in the process, the individual will still be able to disprove the diagnosis while medical professionals will have enough time to discover the wrongfulness of their diagnosis.

One will not lose anything by being misdiagnosed as psychologically or mentally incapacitated, perhaps just time and effort in proving the misdiagnosis of medical professionals. On the other hand, if one is wrongly diagnosed as not having a mental disorder, he will miss the chance of being provided with professional help and assistance as to how he will be able to conquer the problems brought about by his psychological or mental disorder.

After being diagnosed without mental disorders even if in fact, one is psychologically or mentally changed, it will not be treated properly fuelling the possibility of one’s illness or disorder getting worse, while at the same time, intensifying the effects that it might bring towards one life. Missing out on the chance of being treated will neglect “damage control” allowing the illness or disorder to intensify possibly leading to a state wherein medical professionals will not be able to provide and recommend treatment appropriately.


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