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Psychological theory of development phase Essay

Juniad is ten, he is currently experiencing constant developmental phase through his life experience, the nature of his current developed behavior problems are: aggressiveness, defiantness, disobedient and incompetence in class activities. His challenges are reading disorder, school insufficient resources, failure, bullying and dysfunctional parenting. Using the Erik Erikson psychological theory of developmental phase I will be looking at Junaid’s current developmental stage, and I will also be analyzing the factors playing a role in junaid’s developmental stage and also how efficient he will be able to handle the current crisis he is experiencing. Furthermore I will be suggesting options available to facilitate a successful resolution of Junaid’s current developmental stage bolstering his chances of exiting this stage with confidence and competence. With the Erik Erikson psychological theory of development phase Juniad is currently in Industry vs Inferiority. Junaid is ten this stage begins at the age of 6 to puberty, the challenge is mastering of certain basic skills required for success in adult life while avoiding feelings of inferiority.

In this stage children develops ability to work with others, success becomes very important to the child the Synthesis when this psychological crisis is resolved successfully. Children develop a sense of competency at useful skills and tasks. More and new demands are imposed upon children and children in turn are generally ready to meet these demands. The danger at this stage, is, inferiority this is reflected in sad pessimism of children who have little have little confidence in their ability to do things well. This sense of inadequacy may develop when parental attitudes are negative towards the child’s developing competency, when family life has not prepared children for school life or when experiences with teachers and peers are so negative that they destroy children’s feeling of competence and mastery (Louw & Louw, 2007). Junaid is not successfully resolving the crisis faced by him, because factors like reading disorder, school insufficient resources, failure, bullying and dysfunctional parenting are challenges that are interfering with his current stage in Erikson’s psychological theory of development.

All this factors leads to his developed behaviour problems of aggressiveness, defiantness, disobedient and incompetence in class activities; this is an interpretation that he couldn’t acquire the basic skills in life for the next developmental stage, his incompetence around this areas lead to behavioral problems, because this is the best way he knows how through his life experiences and the factors around him. Problems like aggressiveness looking into Instrumental aggression; it refers to aggression as a means to an end (Louw & Louw, 2007). Junaid could be aggressive just to pass a message to the parent or the social environment, that is emotional needs are not meet. According to Louw and Louw (2007) Erikson’s basic trust vs. mistrust; from Basic trust infants develops the necessary self-confidence, mistrusting infants are usually subjected to erratic or harsh care and cannot depend on the goodness and compassion of others. They therefore tend to protect themselves by withdrawing from others around them and it is carried into later relationship.

Juaid lacks self-confidence in himself and his abilities, his non-participation in class activities shows he is unable to meet up with the teacher’s expectation. Looking into self-confidence in terms of Erik’s basic trust vs mistrust, it is necessary to develop self-confidence this only shows that Junaid’s was subjected to harsh care and he is trying to protect himself from his parents’ behaviour towards him and the social environment. He feels there is no goodness or compassion and these basic mistrust issues can also be added with the crisis he faces in his current live as he lacks self- confidence in everything he does. Children developmental stages is a process that still relies on pass encounters or experience to predict or understand present behaviour. Children development is a continues process, the behavior of every individual’s is unique, children generally have these unique way in which they cognitively and emotionally interpret and process their experiences this plays a significant influence on their development. Looking into developmental areas; aggressiveness, defiantness, disobedient and incompetent with class activities are all related to “social development “

It is the development of an individual’s interaction and relationships with other people. Furthermore it also refers to the influence of society and significant other persons on the individuals, one importance aspect of social development is “moral development” (Louw & Louw, 2007). Being aggressive, defiant, disobedient and incompetent with class activities shows there is also a problem in the moral development. Going back into social development, society and significant other person’s plays an important role in the individual’s life. Some of Juniad’s challenges like Bullying and dysfunctional parenting style, Reading disorder and failure, we could clearly see how social factors have an effect on his current developed behavior problems. Bullying it is destructive form of peer interaction in which children become frequent targets of verbal and physical attacks or other forms of abuse (Louw & Louw, 2007).

Bullying has influence on the child’s psychical, emotional, social and educational wellbeing. Reading disorder which leads to failure can be associated as a result of bullying since Juan’s first grade. Parent and educators have an important role to play in eradicating bullying. Dysfunctional parenting style and aggression, social factors of aggressive behavior parents play a vital role in their children’s aggressive behavior, the type of nurturance a child receives and the disciplinary strategies that parents follow. Children whose parents are cold, negative, hostile and rejecting towards them tend to be more aggressive. Parents negative behavior may cause frustration in the children because their emotional needs are not being meet; they react with aggressive behaviour (Louw & Louw, 2007). Juniad’s father wants him to be involved in sport. As a result of his lack of competency in sports due to physical nature his father criticized him.

Recalling back to social factors of aggressive behaviour and parents, we could actually see one or more reasons why junaid is aggressive how the negative behaviour of his dad causes frustration in his life. Parents need to know children developmental phrase and the developmental stages each developmental characterizes and crisis, the opposing poles according to which individuals must orientate. The positive and negative poles of a crisis in children development and also find the necessary solution to remedy the current crisis, because the earlier stage of psychological development provide the foundation for the later stage (Louw & Louw, 2007). Parents should take the development of their children seriously by acquiring the right information from the right source like local medical practitioner, psychologist. Etc. If they can’t make time they can watch related narrative videos online; on how to raise children into successful adult. Mankind has developed through ages and currently in the era of information technology (Elliott & Jacebson 1991).

Internet can be as a source for helpful information which is uploaded out there, parent can make internet research and also view helpful videos like; About Child Development, Child Development Stages, Infant Developmental Milestones (Youtube 2014). Parent should understand what developmental miles stone stands for and what they should expect from their children at certain ages, just an insight to understand that children are fragile and they shouldn’t be forced in development. Parent should know what to expect from their children when they know more about developmental miles stones. They should be informed on things to do so they don’t hurt their child emotionally and psychically. According to UniCef South Africa (2008) parents/family have roles to play in the life of their kids, they are supporting guards giving to assist parent to know their roles and how to assist their children. Aggressive behaviour sometimes is as a result of low self-esteem treatment to improve low self-esteem emphasis on encouraging the patient to examine their beliefs and the evidence to support them and to acknowledge their positive qualities and also method to enhance self-esteem which is focused on eliciting statement about positive qualities that the patient may have and then investigating evidence to support these positive statements. (Pauline & Nicholas 2003).

People with low self-esteem need positive activities to strengthen the already positive form of action helping them to get through their behavioral problems. They need to realize well power. Phonologically driven instructional Treatment can be of help with patient suffering from dyslexia, a phonological driven instructional treatment has to do with motivation of the patients with general phenomenon that they engage in or interact with that makes them happy like stories, cartoons, depending on the age of the patients and what generally appease or interest them. Understanding dyslexia involves a lot of combinations like, the current patient’s situation with the characters of the stories or the cartoons or the hero, making them understand they can be more. This encourages or convinces dyslexia patient that despite a slow start in learning to read, they could finish the race as skilled readers. The using of a systems approach in which instruction will be aimed at all levels of language (subword, word, and text). Create instructional session, where by each session begins with a sound games to remediate the deficits in phonologic processing.

Present polysyllabic words from texts present them orally, allow Junaid to count the number of syllables in the spoken word and use colored counters to represent each phoneme in the syllables. Only after he analyzed the phonologic structure of each word will he see the same words in written form. Teach him how to decode the words by using syllabic patterns of written english and correspondences between one and two-letter spelling units and phonemes. Be Patient give him more time in analyzing and utilizing the complexity of syllabic patterns and spelling-phoneme of English. Present reading materials for reading then, enlighten Junaid more about the brain and functions of the brain. Repeat treatment from time to time. Phonologically driven treatment suggests that the brain is not only an independent variable that can cause a language disorder, such as dyslexia, but is also a dependent variable that can be modified by instructional intervention from the environment (Richards & Corinaa & Serafinia & Steurya, & Echelarda & Dagera & Berningera 2000).

In conclusion: A child development is a gradual process, social factors plays an important role in children’s development. It is important to note that developmental stages in children are important, unsuccessful developmental stage can be a problem in the next stage of development creating behavioral problems. Parents should understand children behaviour is unique, in a sense that pass experience creates present situation in behaviour. Parents should lookup data in this technology era that will assist them in raising their children. Aggressive behaviour or other unable acceptable social behaviour is mostly driving by unmeet emotional needs. Dyslexia patient sometimes end up using “drugs” one of the most common results of the limitation is the response of aggression (Hall & Tarrier 2003). It is important remedy behavioral problems in time.


List.Elliott, R. K., & Jacebson, P. D. (1991). ACCOUNTING A NATIONAL EMERGENCY. Journal of Accountancy, 55. Chicago Hall, P. L., & Tarrier, N. (2003). The cognitive-behavioural treatment of low self-esteem in psychotic patients: a pilot study. Behaviour research and therapy, 41(3), 317-332. Chicago Louw, D., & Louw, A. (2007). Child and adolescent development. South Africa. Richards, T. L., Corina, D., Serafini, S., Steury, K., Echelard, D. R., Dager, S. R., … & Berninger, V. W. (2000). Effects of a phonologically driven treatment for dyslexia on lactate levels measured by proton MR spectroscopic imaging. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 21(5), 916-922. Unicef South Africa. (2008). Nation Building From The Start Early Childhood Development. Unicef, August 26.
[On-line].Available: http://www.unicef.org/southafrica/SAF_resources_kbsreport.pdfYoutube. (2014). Child Development Stages. Child development, August 26. [On-line]. Available: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P7f5TggIVLgYoutube. (2014). Infant Developmental Milestones [UndergroundMed]. UndergroudMed, August 26. [On-line]. Available: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i0fnBTUuRIAYoutube. (2014). About Child Development. Child development, August 26. [On-line]. Available: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i0fnBTUuRIA

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