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Psychological Measure Essay

Team B examines the aspects of psychological tests and measurements by focusing on the Beck Depression Inventory. Examining the two articles over the Beck Depression Inventory aids Team B in deciding services, servers, and backgrounds of the measure. The psychological testing that has developed and progressed and is used in a wide variety of settings by a wide variety of individuals is called the Beck Depression Inventory. Testing aids in serving professionals in figuring out sickness or deficiency and lending a hand in making one of a kind and individual treatment procedures. The Beck Depression Inventory is an individually administered test with 21 items, calculates personal experiences, and psychological symptoms linked with depression. Team B examined both of the articles concerning Beck Depression Inventory and was skilled in deciding the services, servers, and the background where the Beck Depression Inventory is relevant and how the psychological measure is helpful in psychological regulations.

Beck Depression Inventory Articles

Beck Depression Inventory

Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is a set of 21 self-reported questions to measure the intensity, severity, and depth of depressive symptoms in patients aged 13-80 years old. A shorter BDI consists of seven questions for administration by primary care providers. The Beck Depression Inventory detects, assesses, and monitors changes in depressive symptoms among people in a mental health care environment. Aaron T. Beck, a pioneer in cognitive therapy, developed the first BDI in 1961, adapted in 1969, and copyrighted in 1979. In 1996, a second version of the BDI (BDI-II) was developed and published reflecting the revisions in the fourth edition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) (Fundukian & Wilson, 2008).

The long version of the BDI consists of 21 questions or items with four possible responses. Each response contains a score from zero to three indicates the severity of the symptom the patient experienced in the previous two weeks. The version used by primary care providers (BDI-PC) consists of seven self-reported items. Fundukian and Wilson (2008) state, “Individual questions of the BDI assess mood, pessimism, sense of failure, self-dissatisfaction, guilt, punishment, self-dislike, self-accusation, suicidal ideas, crying, irritability, social withdrawal, body image, work difficulties, insomnia, fatigue, appetite, weight loss, body preoccupation, and loss of libido” (para. 6). BDI also detects depressive symptoms in a primary care setting. Completion of a BDI for a psychological or medical evaluation occurs between five to ten minutes (Fundukian & Wilson, 2008).

According to Fundukian and Wilson (2008), BDI tests score differently for general population and clinically depressed individuals. The sum of BDI item scores determines the severity of depression. For the general population, a score of 21 or higher indicates depression. Clinically diagnosed individuals contain a variety of scores. Zero to nine scores indicate minimal depressive symptoms, 10 to 16 scores indicate mild depression, 17 to 29 scores indicate moderate depression, and 30 to 63 scores indicate severe depression. The BDI distinguishes between different subtypes of depressive disorder, such as major depression and dysthymia.

The BDI contains content validity because of development from a consensus of clinicians about depressive symptoms in psychiatric patients. The BDI contains concurrent validity because at least 35 studies present concurrent validity between BDI and measures of depression, such as the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-D. The BDI contains construct validity because it relates to medical symptoms, anxiety, stress, loneliness, sleep patterns, alcoholism, suicidal behaviors, and youth adjustment. The BDI contains factor analysis because the BDI interprets as one syndrome composed of three factors: negative self-attitudes, performance impairment, and bodily disturbance. The BDI test for reliability, following established standards for psychological tests and contains internal consistency. The BDI is valid and reliable and higher scores relate to educational attainment (Fundukian & Wilson, 2008).

Breast Cancer and Breast Disease

In the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study, 115 women with breast cancer symptoms participated in an in-depth interview and completed standardized questionnaires. Study variables were retrieved before completing diagnostic procedures. BDI evaluated the depression of study participants. Eskelinen and Ollonen (2011) reported, “Clinical examinations and biopsies discovered breast cancer in 34 patients, 53 patients with benign breast disease, and 28 healthy individuals. Healthy women exhibited less sadness (BDI mean score, 0.27) than women with breast cancer (BDI mean score, 0.56) and women with benign breast disease (BDI mean score, 0.49). Healthy women were less pessimistic (BDI mean score, 0.15) than patients in the breast cancer group (BDI mean score, 0.44) and the benign breast disease (BD mean score, 0.42)” (para. 3).

The group of healthy women contained less self-accusation than the breast cancer group and breast benign disease group. The group of healthy women reported less work inhibition and weight loss than the breast cancer group and breast benign disease group. The results of the study do not report a specific relation between BDI scores and breast cancer risk, but patients with breast cancer and breast benign disease have an increased risk for depressive symptoms (Eskelinen & Ollonen, 2011).

Compare and Contrast

Each articles contains specific information about Beck Depression Inventory. The first article focuses on the definition, purpose, precautions, description, and results of the BDI. The second article focuses on a case study relating BDI to women with breast cancer and breast cancer disease. The first article focuses on an overview of BDI, but also includes BDI contains content validity, concurrent validity, construct validity, factor analysis, and reliability. The second article focuses on a specific disease and case study connecting with BDI. Both articles relate because they include BDI scores and depressive bodily symptoms relating to BDI.

Analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory

Beck Depression Inventory (DBI) is a questionnaire that consists of “21 items, each describing a behavioral manifestation together with between four and six self – evaluative statements from which the respondent is ask to choose the one that is most applicable” (Colman, 2006, p. 84). The originally developed in 1961and revised in1993 the DBI-II was published in 1996. There are more DBI tests that are designed to measure other conditions such as suicide, anxiety and hopelessness (Colman, 2006, p, 84). This test can be self – administered or oral for people with learning disabilities. Anyone can be trained to administer and score this test however; according to (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 2012, para. 6) it can only be properly interpreted by a psychiatrist. This process begins when the patient first sees their primary care physician and complains of feeling sad, hopelessness, loss of sleep, problems with eating whether eating too little or over eating, or even aches and pains. “In Beck’s view, the person who becomes depressed usually has a pattern of negative thoughts” (Robbins, 2003, p. 145, para 11).

Some things that might be experienced by the patient are a belief of inadequacy, failure, and they are receiving unfair treatment by life. It is a common practice to have a brief questionnaire in the primary care physician office concerning the signs and symptoms of depression to help identify people with depression. Once the primary care has exhausted their scope of treatment, they will refer the patient to a psychiatrist or psychologist for further evaluation and treatment who will administer a more detailed version of the BDI, BDI-II or the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.

Settings that the DBI can be used in are a clinic, in or out patients setting, counselor office, cognitive therapist, or by a psychologist. The place would depend on the patient and his or her state of mind and physical condition at the time undergoing the necessary treatment for depression. For instance the person had tried to commit suicide and needed to remain hospitalized a social worker would interview them and refer him or her to a psychologist or psychiatrist for proper treatment.

Valid or Invalid

The Beck Depression Inventory “has been used for 35 years to identify and assess depressive symptoms, and has been reported to be highly reliable regardless of the population. It has a high coefficient alpha, its construct validity has been established, and it is able to differentiate depressed from non-depressed patients” (Beck, Steer; Brown, 2006). “The BDI-II manual reports correlations with a variety of other tests, arguing for both convergent and discriminant validity. It attempts to show, in the case of discriminant validity, that the test is not primarily a measure of anxiety. A factor analysis suggests that the BDI-II items tap two dimensions, one labeled Somatic-Affective, the other labeled Cognitive” (Hogan, 2007, p. 501). “The manual presents reliability and validity data based on a sample of 500 outpatients clinically diagnosed according to DSM criteria at four sites, as well as on a sample of 120 students from one Canadian college.

The BDI-II manual reports alpha coefficients of .92 for the outpatient sample and .93 for the college sample. Test-retest reliability of .93 is reported for a subsample of 26 cases from the outpatient group, with a retest interval of one week” (Hogan, 2007, p. 502). “The mean scores of the first and second total scores were comparable with a paired t (25) =1.08, which was not significant” (Beck, Steer; Brown, 2006). According to a research conducted “The widely used Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was initially standardized on a sample of Caucasian university students and its use with minorities has only recently been investigated” (Sashidharan, Pawlow; Pettibone, 2012, p. 203). The research called an examination of racial bias in the Beck Depression Inventory-II, intended to examine the possibilities of bias within ethics groups and in more specific the African American race.

“A hierarchical multiple regression compared the scores of the BDI-II with a similar measure of depression that is standardized for use with African Americans” (Sashidharan, Pawlow; Pettibone, 2012, p. 203 ) “The studied was perform with “977 students (139 African American students [14.2%] and 838 Caucasian students [85.8%]) was recruited from a medium-sized, public, American midwestern university’s undergraduate psychology participant pool. Data were collected over the course of an academic year, with the goal of obtaining a minimum of 100 African American participants” (Sashidharan, Pawlow; Pettibone, 2012, p. 204). “There was no evidence of racial bias discovered in the BDI-II in this sample. Implications and future directions of research are discussed.” (Sashidharan, Pawlow; Pettibone, 2012, p. 203).

Conclusion

The Beck Depression Inventory is helpful in psychological measurements and regulations. Team B decided the services, servers, and backgrounds of the measure while explaining the definition and uses of Beck Depression Inventory. Beck Depression Inventory aids professionals in discovering sicknesses and deficiencies in patients and aids in providing unique, individual treatment procedures. In the conclusion of Team B’s research, the team discovered the Beck Depression Inventory is relevant, helpful, and a complex topic.

References
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (2012, September 11). BECK DEPRESSION INVENTORY-SECOND EDITION (BDI-II); 1996. Retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs,gov/programs/opre/ehs/perf…/res_meas_phic.html Beck Depression Inventory. (2008). In L. J. Fundukian & J. Wilson (Eds.), The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 123-124). Detroit: Gale. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX2699900051&v=2.1&u=uphoenix&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w Colman, A. M. (2006). OXFORD DICTIONARY OF PSYCHOLOGY (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc. Eskelinen, M. & Ollonen, P. (2011). Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) in patients with breast disease and breast cancer: a prospective case-control study. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21282743 Hogan, T. P. (2007). Psychological testing: A practical introduction (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Robbins, P. R. (2003). understanding PSYCHOLOGY (3rd ed.). Portland, ME: Walch Publishing. Sashidharan, T., Pawlow, L. A., & Pettibone, J. C. (2012). An examination of racial bias in the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Cultural Diversity And Ethnic Minority Psychology, 18(2), 203-209. doi:10.1037/a0027689 T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown (2006). RCMAR Measurement Tools Beck Depression Inventory – 2nd Edition (BDI-II). Retrieved from http://www.musc.edu/dfm/RCMAR/Beck.html


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