Whether one is conscious of it or not, we all have our respective worldviews. The way we view life in general and our approach to it is the worldview that control and guide us in every decision that we make – in the way we cope pressures, and even as we celebrate and enjoy good days. Since on a particular worldview a person stands or falls, it is very important to constantly check and evaluate one’s philosophy of life. If I will be asked the question: “Which philosophy is the best philosophy? ” The best answer that I can come up with is, “Of course, the philosophy that encourages intellectual development.
” Christianity is a religion that has been compared, every now and then, to many philosophical persuasions; and most of the time, it was either mixed with other worldviews which were totally strange to it, or the proponents of other strange worldviews have attempted to enjoin Christianity to their philosophy, which inevitably have resulted in confusion and clever duplicity in individuals who follow and experiment into this game (Cheung, 2007, p. 34). For generations, people in different civilizations have become witnesses of how their fellows advocated multiple philosophical disciplines.
In fact, today, if one would just observe closely, many hold a compound of various beliefs that got rooted and accumulated for years in the family via environmental conditioning. The by-product of this kind of influence is an individual who cope through the varying situations and circumstances of life with the competence of a chameleon. This kind of approach will not properly help in the development and growth of a person as he or she wades his/her way through college. Contrary to the perception of many, the Biblical Worldview is the one philosophy that encourages the pursuit of true knowledge.
It, in fact, commands the engagement of the intellect in the pursuit and exploration of true scientific studies. What precipitated the period of Enlightenment? Was it not when people were hungry for the Truth (Shelley, 1982, p. 55)? And these are periods in the history of humankind when the Biblical Worldview was being brought to the fore of society’s endeavors. If there are two philosophies that developed naturally from one to another, they are Judaism and Christianity. The flow of growth from beginning to consummation is recorded in the Old and the New Testament of the Bible (Escalona, 2008, p.
87). B. Literature review The Extent of Usefulness of the Theory A survey in literature reveals that there is little evidence so far in studies that deliberately seek to determine the efficacies of psychodynamic approach in comparison with any of the other approaches in the treatment of abnormal behavior. A few which came out, in particular one research looked into the applicability of treatment in anorexia and bulimia cases which utilized the psychodynamic model and other models such as cognitive orientation treatment. Results of the experiment by Bachar et al (1999, p.
67) showed positive outcomes where this particular approach was used. It must be remembered that mainstream psychology and psychiatry widely use the cognitive model in explaining and treating abnormal behavior. In the controlled, randomized study by Bachar and team members however, the research highlighted the efficacy of psychodynamic approach in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia disorders. Other studies however show that therapists usually employ a combination of cognitive and psychodynamic approaches or an integrative method in the psychological treatments and interventions (Kasl-Godley, 2000, p.
92). Many of the cases today then, support this view rather than a single method in an efficacious treatment of many of these mental and emotional diseases. The disadvantages of the psychodynamic approach in many of the studies done based on a using this as a single method is that of the apparent difficulty of precise measurements on the treatment procedure itself. The approach usually is limited by whether it can be exactly replicated. Specifically, one other limitation or disadvantage is that the cause of phenomena (i. e. , symptom substation) cannot be located.
In addition, another setback is that not all individuals can be hypnotized when using hypnosis in the therapy especially (Kaplan, 1994, p. 431). Reference: Bachar, Eytan, Yael Latzer,Shulamit Kreitler, & Elliot Berry 1999. Empirical comparison of two psychological therapies: Self Psychology and Cognitive Orientation in the treatment of Anorezia and Bulimia. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research. American Psychiatric Association 8:115-128, Freud, Sigmund.  1990. The psychopathology of everyday life. New York. W. W. Norton and Company, Inc. Halonen, JS and JW Santrock, 1996.
Psychology: Contexts of Behavior, Dubuque, IA: Brown and Benchmark, p. 810. Hilgard, ER, RR Atkinson, and RC Atkinson 1983. Introduction to Psychology. 7th ed. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanich, Inc. Hurlok, E. B. 1964. Child Development. New York: Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. Kaplan, HI, BJ Saddock and JA Grebb. 1994. Kaplan and Saddock’s Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behaviroal Sciences clinical psychiatry. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. Kasl-Godley, Julia 2000. Psychosocial intervention for individuals with dementia: An integration of theory, therapy, and a clinical understanding of dementia.
Clinical Psychological Review. Vol. 20(6). Leahey, B. B. 1995. Psychology: An Introduction. Iowa: WCB Brown and Benchmark. Rathus, S. A. 1990. Psychology 4th ed. Orlando Fl. : Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Sdorow, L. M. 1995. Psychology, 3rd ed. Dubuque, IA:WCB Brown and Benchmark Publishers Santrock, J. W. 2000. Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill. ________ Models of abnormality http://intranet1. sutcol. ac. uk:888/NEC/MATERIAL/PDFS/PSYCHO/ASPSYCHO/23U2_T5. PDF Part II. Integration Section A. Introduction Nowhere is counseling more relevant than the conditions and dilemmas faced by man today.
The Bible mentions about the the fears that assail humans then during the early days, and which will be experienced also as time draws to a close. Jeremiah 17:8 implies about the kind of fear which some if not many, will succumb “when heat comes” (RSV). This illustrates as well that the stressful days are but natural to one’s existence; an affliction to being born into a fallen world. Ephesians 2 is even more clear what befalls on a person who is “dead in trespasses and sins” (KJV); he is subject to the dictates of a world system (v. 2a, KJV), being in the clutches of the evil spirit (v. 2b, KJV), and awaits the anger that God has on them (v.
3, KJV). All these may position any individual to a life of anxiety, depression, wrongful habits ((v. 3, KJV), substance abuse and other addictions that definitely determine the deterioration of overall mental and physical health. The functioning therefore of any person may be compromised and taxed to the limits, producing individuals who are abusive and getting abused. When not operating in optimal condition, man is sure to experience what psychology tends to diagnose and label as malfunctioning and maladjusted; at worst, the evidence of mental institutions’ existence only shows how this truth has long been spoken about in the Bible.
Hence, the Bible becoming more relevant, and a theologically and scientifically trained counselor is even more needed these days. In the field of counselling, the primary considerations that those in the field who are practicing directly or indirectly have something to do with the previously held belief system, or the worldview or philosophy behind the notion of human behaviour. This goes to say that one who ventures into the business of healing and curing emotions and psychological problems must get into a thorough understanding of his/her personal approach to the study of human behaviour.
The counselor seeks to explain human nature, the issue of sin or prbably emphasizing or reducing the Scriptural mandate and God’s verdict (whichever side he/she is on), and which eventually dictates intervention strategies, if any. It is even bold as to say that counseling in whatever front is basically “religious” in nature because in the end, what is upheld or emphasized by the counselor expresses deep-rooted philosophy or religious beliefs.
The paper thus seeks to present a personal understanding of how practice in counseling is believed to be done considering the personal qualities, depth and realizations of Biblical truths (this is pre-eminent), and many of the nitty-gritty concepts that comprise the practice of counseling in one’s context. Being in contemporary America, with the recent economic meltdown that leave many surprised and shocked of the reduction of most of their economic capabilities to barely the minimum, being relevant as a counselor is not only a necessity, but it is the very important ingredient to helping many survive with their mental faculties intact.
Therefore, this paper makes bold assumptions about human nature in general, how this is addressed in various situations that the average man will be meeting, and how growth (which is interpreted as a positive direction the individual will take) in all areas of his existence may take place. B. Psychoanalytic therapy Leading figures Primary importance is given into the development of one of the most influential disciplines in the world today and that is psychology. This is due to the fact that psychology seemed almost foremost in virtually every kind of decision making process that man makes.
Because of this serious biblical ministers and/or scholars or theologians have long studied these effects and have come up with their answers and with their verdict. A Brief History of Modern Psychology by Ludy T. Benjamin, Jr. (2006, p. 23) starts to trace the roots of psychology when Wundt, in 1879, initiated what is now recognized as the first psychology laboratory. The author Benjamin satisfies the reader on what made the psychology today a very much pursued subject of interest as well as a career.
Tackling on the lives of the people foremost in this discipline, the book made an otherwise boring and usually uninteresting subject matter into an exciting topic any student will be able to handle. The author mentioned details of the pioneers’ lives and the social milieu that characterized their lives and culture during their day which in all realistic evaluation had made its contribution to what their theoretical perspectives had developed. Other important highlights include the development of psychological tests and assessment techniques that Stanford and Binet spearheaded among others.
The following narrative on one of psychology’s key players and foremost in what is now known as the “first force” in the field gives the reader the importance of their contribution to cotemporary psychology (Benjamin, 2006, p. 76). -Freud, Sigmund Viennese neurologist, founder of psychoanalysis (1856-1939) took his medical degree at the University of Vienna in 1881 and planned a specialist’s career in neurology. Lack of means forced him to abandon his research interests for a clinical career.
His interest in what was to become psychoanalysis developed during his collaboration with Josef Breuer in 1884, which resulted in Studies in Hysteria, The Interpretation of Dreams appeared in 1900, Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex in 1905, and the General Introduction to Psychoanalysis in 1916 – a book which contained the evolving theory of the libido and the unconsciousness, in subsequent years, Freud’s outlook became increasingly broad as revealed by the titles of his later works (Benjamin, 2006, p. 54).
C. Psychoanalytic Theory The psychodynamic perspective is based on the work of Sigmund Freud. He created both a theory to explain personality and mental disorders, and the form of therapy known as psychoanalysis. The psychodynamic approach assumes that all behavior and mental processes reflect constant and unconscious struggles within person. These usually involve conflicts between our need to satisfy basic biological instincts, for example, for food, sex or aggression, and the restrictions imposed by society.
Not all those who take a Psychodynamic approach accept all of Freud’s original ideas, but most would view normal or problematic behavior as the result of a failure to resolve conflicts adequately. This paper attempts to distinguish itself in trying to not only understand the theory that Freud pioneered and polished by some of his faithful followers but especially determine the extent of its usefulness in explaining and treating abnormal behavior.. It is the aim of the author to present in precis a description and explanation of the psychodynamic approach and its usefulness in the context of abnormal behavior (Kaplan, 1994, p.
657). To interpret the theoretical framework of Freud in the context of the Christian religion or Biblical Christianity is essential in order to discover whether their fundamental teachings can mix well in mainstream Christianity. Freud taught about the personality constructs of id, ego and superego; about free association, instincts (life and death); his very controversial psychosexual stages of oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital; the fixation and cathexis concepts. In general this is a theory of personality dynamics which is aimed at the motivational and emotional components of personality.
It sounds good that according to Freud, man inherits the life and death instincts (libido and mortido). In the Biblical perspective, however, all these concepts are traceable to the sinful nature which all human species have inherited from the first couple Adam and Eve. In some portions of the Biblical record (Roman 5:12), Adam is said to be the federal head and from him has proceeded both sinful nature, which is inherent in all men, and death – which is the Fall’s eventual outcome.
The Bible highlights sin as the main problem of all of the manifestations of abnormality as reflected or manifested in the psyche or human behavior (Bobgan, 1987, p. 543). This theory discounts religion’s God’s pre-eminence, sovereignty and will, and active role in a person’s life. It also discounts man’s ultimate accountability before an almighty God. Moreover, it discounts many of the fundamentals that the Bible teaches, like sin and repentance, just Freud’s other followers propounded (Bobgan, 1987, p. 544). Fundamentally, environment is not to be blamed.
Nothing could be more accurate than stating it in exactly the same manner that the Apostle has echoed the true state of affairs. It is somehow true to say, “It’s all up in the mind. ” People violate neighbors because first they have violated the laws of God. And so, “In the futility of their mind, having their understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God, because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart; who, being past feeling, have given themselves over to lewdness, to work all uncleanness with greediness” (Eph.
4:17-19). As daily news in the headlines air everyday, and practically speaking, people have made it their daily business to work driven by greed, never minding what they leave behind in their wake. Because the fight has long been lost – which is in the level of consciousness – everyone now is at the mercy of chance, relationally, in this world. And it goes both ways. Many of the disorders or mental illnesses recognized today without a doubt have their psychodynamic explanation aside from other viewpoints like that of the behaviourist, or the cognitivists.
From simple childhood developmental diseases to Schizophrenia, there is a rationale that from Freud’s camp is able to explain (Kaplan et al, 1994, p. 76, 98, 456). I. The Psychodynamic concepts A. Theory of Instincts Libido, Narcissism, Instincts and Pleasure & Reality Principles. Freud employed “libido” to denote to that “force by which the sexual instinct is represented in the mind. ” This concept is quite “crude” or raw in its form hence this refers far more than coitus.
Narcissism was developed by Freud as his explanation of people who happened to have lost libido and found that in the pre-occupation of the self or the ego, like in the cases of dementia praecox or schizophrenia. Persons afflicted with this mental illness appeared to have been reserved or withdrawing from other people or objects. This led Freud to conclude that a loss of contact with reality is usually common among such patients. The libido that he conceptualized as innate in every person is herein explained as invested somewhere else and that is precisely the role of self-love or narcissism in the life of one afflicted.
The occurrence of narcissism is not only among people with psychoses but also with what he calls neurotic persons or in normal people especially when undergoing conditions such as a physical disease or sleep. Freud explains further that narcissism exists already at birth hence, one can expect realistically that newborn babies are wholly narcissistic (Sdorow, 1995, p. 67). Freud classified instincts into different distinguishing dimensions namely: ego instincts, aggression, and life and death instincts.
Ego instincts are the self-preservative aspects within the person, while aggression is a separate construct or structure of the mind which is not a part of the self-preservative nature of the human mind. Its source is found in the muscles while its objective is destruction. Life and death instincts called Eros and Thanatos are forces within the person that pulls in opposite directions. Death instinct is a more powerful force than life instinct (Rathus, 1988, p. 55). The pleasure and reality principles are distinct ideas that help understand the other aspects of Freud’s theory.
The latter is largely a learned function and important in postponing the need to satisfy the self (Sdorow, 1995, p. 98). B. Topographical theory of the mind Much like real physical mapping or description of a land area, the topographical theory appeared as attempt to designate areas of the mind into regions; the unconscious, the preconscious, and the conscious. The Unconscious mind is shrouded in mystery (Kaplan, 1994). It is the repository of repressed ideas, experiences and/or affects that are primary considerations when the person is in therapy or treatment.
It contains biological instincts such as sex and aggression. Some unconscious urges cannot be experienced consciously because mental images and words could not portray them all in their color and fury. Other unconscious urges may be kept below the surface by repression. It is recognized as inaccessible to consciousness but can become conscious by means of the preconscious. Its content is confined to wishes seeking fulfilment and may provide the motive force for the formation of dream and neurotic symptoms.
In other words, unconscious forces represent wishes, desires or thoughts, that, because of their disturbing or threatening content, we automatically repress and cannot voluntarily access (Santrock, 2000, p. 43). The Preconscious is a region of the mind which is not inborn but developed only when childhood stage is beginning to emerge. The preconscious mind contains elements of experience that presently out of awareness but are made conscious simply by focusing on them. Freud labelled the region that poked through into the light of awareness as the Conscious part of the mind.
Conscious thoughts are wishes, desires, or thoughts that we are aware of, or can recall, at any given moment. It is closely related in understanding as that of the organ of attention operating with the preconscious. With attention the individual is able to perceive external stimuli. However, Freud theorized that our conscious thoughts are only a small part of our total mental activity, much of which involves unconscious thoughts or forces (Leahey, 1995, p. 433). C. Structural Theory of the Mind
Freud conceptualized the mind into what is called as three provinces equivalent to its functions: the id, ego and superego. The id is that aspect which only looks forward to gratifying any of its desires and without any delay. The ego is the structure of the mind which begins to develop during the first year of life, largely because a child’s demands for gratification cannot all be met immediately. The ego “stands for reason and good sense” (Freud, 1901, p. 22), for rational ways of coping with frustrations.
It curbs the appetites of the id and makes plans that are compatible with social convention so that a person can find gratification yet avert the censure of others. In contrast to the id’s pleasure, the ego follows the reality principle. The reality principle has a policy of satisfying a wish or desire only if there is a socially acceptable outlet available (Halonen et al, 1996, p. 43). The superego develops throughout early childhood, usually incorporating the moral standards and value of parents and important members of the community through identification.
The superego holds forth shining examples of an ideal self and also acts like the conscience, an internal moral guardian. Throughout life, the superego monitors the intentions of the ego and hands out judgment of right and wrong. It floods the ego with feelings of guilt and shame when the verdict is negative (Halonen et al, 1996, p. 43). As children learn that they must follow rules and regulations in satisfying their wishes, they develop a superego. The superego, which is Freud’s third division of the mind, develops from the ego during early childhood (Hurlock, 196, p.
66). Through interactions with the parents or caregivers, a child develops a superego by taking on or incorporating the parents’ or caregivers’ standards, values, and rules. The superego’s power is in making the person feel guilty if the rules are discovered; the pleasure-seeking, id wants to avoid feeling guilty. It is motivated to listen to the superego as a moral guardian or conscience that is trying to control the id’s wishes and impulses (Hilgard, et al, 1979).
From the Freudian perspective, a healthy personality has found ways to gratify most of the id’s demands without seriously offending the superego. Most of the id’s remaining demands are contained or repressed. If the ego is not a good problem solver or if the superego is too stern, the ego will have a hard time of it (Halonen et al, 1996, p. 43). D. Therapeutic goals Sigmund Freud offered a psychoanalytic viewpoint on the diagnosis and understanding of a person’s mental health. Other perspectives, the behavioristic paradigm offers to see this in a different light.
The psychoanalytic perspective emphasizes childhood experiences and the role of the unconscious mind in determining future behavior and in explaining and understanding current based on past behavior. Basing on his personality constructs of the Id, Ego and the Superego, Freud sees a mentally healthy person as possessing what he calls Ego strength. On the other hand, the behavior therapist sees a person as a “learner” in his environment, with the brain as his primary organ of survival and vehicle for acquiring his social functioning.
With this paradigm, mental health is a result of the environment’s impact on the person; he learns to fear or to be happy and therein lies the important key in understanding a person’s mental state. Considering that the achievement and maintenance of mental health is one of the pursuits of psychology, the following is a brief outline of what psychologists would endorse a healthy lifestyle. The individual must consider each of the following and incorporate these in his/her day to day affairs: 1. The Medical doctor’s viewpoint – well-being emphasis than the illness model
2. The Spiritual viewpoint- a vital spiritual growth must be on check. 3. The Psychologist’s viewpoint- emotional and relationship factors in balance. 4. The Nutritionist’s viewpoint – putting nutrition and health as top priority. 5. The Fitness Expert’s viewpoint- Exercise as part of a daily regimen. The theory I have in mind then is an amalgamation of several approaches, primarily the integration of the Christian worldview and the theories set forth by Cognitive-behaviorists and psychoanalytic models, and biological/physical continuum.
There are other good models but a lot of reasons exist why they cannot be “good enough;” a lot depends on my own personality. Being authentic to who you are, your passion, is effectively communicated across an audience whether it is a negative or positive one. The basic way of doing the “amalgamation” or integration is that the Christian worldview takes precedence over the rest of the approaches. Although many of the concepts and premises of each theory mentioned are sound and at times efficacious, when it clashes with the faith-based theory, the former must give way to the latter.
It is understood then, that I thoroughly examined each of the theory and set them against the backdrop of spirituality. Interpreting a problem that a client suffers for instance, entails that the theoretical viewpoint that I am convinced with, has better chances of properly understanding the maladjustments that the client had been suffering. To come up with the balanced worldview (an integration in other words), the balance between the realms mentioned, including the true frame of human individuals and the true nature of God (or theology) are properly considered.
Thoroughly accepting the fact that there is no contest between the natural and the spiritual; only that troubles arise when one realm is overemphasized at the expense of another. This thin line or slight tension between the two levels is best expressed in the personhood of Jesus Christ, who was a perfect man as well as God. If we start to equate ourselves with that notion (which is usually happening) and we start to think that we are balanced, then we surely lack understanding or real self-awareness of the fact that we are deeply and seriously out of balance and this is one reason why we need help.
~ What are your general goals in therapy? Christian counseling admittedly embraces in reality, a basic integration of the biblical precepts on the view of man and psychology’s scientific breakthroughs in addressing the dilemmas that beset human individuals. Depending on the persuasion of the practitioner, especially whether he or she comes from either the purely theological or “secular” preparation, Christian counseling can either lean to certain degrees of theology or psychology. According to Larry Crabb, “If psychology offers insights which will sharpen our counseling skills and increase our effectiveness, we want to know them.
If all problems are at core spiritual matters we don’t want to neglect the critically necessary resources available through the Lord by a wrong emphasis on psychological theory” (Crabb in Anderson et al, 2000). Dr. Crabb’s position certainly ensures that science in particular, has its place in counseling in as much as theology does. He made sure that all means are addressed as the counselor approaches his profession, especially in the actual conduction of both the diagnostic and therapeutic or intervention phases (Crabb in Anderson et al.
, 2000). Trauma inducing and crisis triggering situations have spiraled its occurrence and in its primacy in the US and in many other countries in recent years. Its broad spectrum ranges from the national disaster category such as that of Hurricane Katrina or the 911 terrorist strikes in New York, Spain and England, to private instances such as a loved one’s attempt at suicide, the murder of a spouse or child, the beginning of mental illness, and the worsening situation of domestic violence (Teller et al, 2006).
The acute crisis episode is a consequence of people who experience life-threatening events and feel overwhelmed with difficulty resolving the inner conflicts or anxiety that threaten their lives. They seek the help of counselors, paramedics and other health workers in crisis intervention centers to tide them over the acute episodes they are encountering. These are defining moments for people and must be adequately addressed else they lead lives with dysfunctional conduct patterns or disorders (Roberts et al, 2006). In the integrated or eclectic approach the goal of the therapy is not just relief to the patient or client.
Although an immediate relief is very helpful, this may not always be the case in most illnesses. The goal as mentioned in the preceding pages is to provide long-term reduction of the symptoms and the occurrence of the disease altogether if possible. The management then is not impossible but neither is this easy. Specifically, the counselee or patient must want to heal or believe that there is going to be curative effects in the process. It presupposes that he/she must learn to trust the therapist in his/her capabilities as well in leading or facilitating the changes or modifications.
It is very much essential that (in the perspective of a cognitive-behaviorist) that the client understands ownership to the deeds and choices in thought patterns he/she made are crucial to the recurring or occurring condition that s/he experiences (Rubinstein et al. , 2007; Corey, 2004). Moreover, the identification of specific treatments or interventions according to the diagnosed issue will be accommodated and implemented based on the chosen treatment modalities fit with the therapeutic approach utilized.
It may be a single modality based on a single approach (e. g. , learning principles and desensitization for a patient with specific phobias) or it maybe a combination of many modalities (CBT, Rogerian, Phenomenological, or Family systems) (Rubinstein et al. , 2007; Corey, 2004). E. Summary Every theoretical approach has its own assumptions. In the psychodynamic theory, the following three assumptions help guide a student of human behavior or an expert in this field determine the underlying factors that explain the overt manifestations of specific behaviors. These assumptions therefore, help guide the diagnosis of the presence or absence of mental illness.
They are the same assumptions that guide the therapist in choosing what treatment that will better help heal, cure or alleviate the symptoms. These assumptions are: – “There are instinctive urges that drive personality formation. ” – “Personality growth is driven by conflict and resolving anxieties. ” – “Unresolved anxieties produce neurotic symptoms” (Source: “Models of abnormality”, National Extension College Trust, Ltd). The goals of treatment here include to alleviate patient of the symptoms is to uncover and work through unconscious conflict.
The task of psychoanalytic therapy is “to make the unconscious conscious to the patient” (“Models of abnormality”, National Extension College Trust, Ltd). Employing the psychodynamic viewpoint, the therapist or social scientist believes that emotional conflicts, or neurosis, and/or disturbances in the mind are caused by unresolved conflicts which originated during childhood years. Reference: Corey, Gerald, 2004. Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. Thomson Learning, USA. Corey, Gerald. 2001. The Art of Integrative Counseling.
Article 29: “Designing an Integrative Approach to Counseling Practice” Retrieved May 9, 2009 in < http://counselingoutfitters. com/vistas/vistas04/29. pdf> Crabb, Larry, 2000. Found in Anderson et al resource. Christ-centered therapy. http://books. google. com/books? id=Rn-f2zL01ZwC&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=effective+biblical+counseling+by+larry+crabb+critique&source=web&ots=WFVYLIqP1n&sig=MqIhqE_XfGzIQODAKV5iMPjqz14#PPA19,M1 Davison, Gerald C. and John M. Neale. 2001. Abnormal Psychology. Eighth ed. John & Wiley Sons, Inc. Ellis, Albert 2001.
Overcoming Destructive Beliefs, Feelings, and Behaviors: New Directions for Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Prometheus Books Kaplan, HI, BJ Saddock and JA Grebb. 1994. Kaplan and Saddock’s Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences clinical psychiatry. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. Benjamin, Ludy T. Jr. 2006. A brief history of Psychology. Wiley-Blackwell; 1 edition. Bobgan, Martin & Deidre. 1987. Psychology: Science or Religion? From Psychoheresy: The psychological seduction of Christianity. Eastgate Publishers. Retrieved May 6, 2009. http://www. rapidnet. com/~jbeard/bdm/Psychology/psych. htm Boring, Edwin G. et. al. 1948. Foundat