Psychoanalytic theory was developed by Sigmend Freud. It is a system in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior. Psychoanalysis is commonly used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. Freud’s Psychosexual Theory of Development explains that if there was a conflict in a stage and not resolved that person would be fixated. Carl Jung’s Analytic Psychology is according to the mind or psyche. Alfred Alder’s Individual Psychology is the importance of each person’s perceived niche in society. Freud’s work is now the most heavily cited in all of psychology.
Most of Freud’s patients did not need treatment so he resorted to using hypnosis. He used the technique of free association in order to understand the causes of mental and physical problems in his patients. Dreams to him were saw as pieces and hints of unconscious. The problems of inner conflict and tension are found in dreams. There are three structured parts in the mind according to Freud. The three parts are id, ego, and superego. Freud’s and Jung are compared by using unconscious sexuality in their theories. The id, das es in German means the it; it operates according to the demands of the pleasure principle to reduce inner tension.
Ego is the Latin word for I. Personality that deals with the real world according to the reality principle to solve real problems. Superego rules over the ego and parts are unconscious, though it constrains our individual actions. Freud looked for meaning in minor connections thoughts and behaviors. Now 100 of years later there are no three levels id, ego, and superego. Freud was correct in concluding that certain parts of the mind are not subject to conscious awareness. His theories opened new approaches to human nature and psychotherapy.
Carl Jung theory is divided into three parts just as Freud’s theory is. The three are unconscious, personal unconscious, and collective unconscious. Freud and Carl embody the sense of self for unconscious. Personal unconscious are thoughts and urges that are unimportant at the present. This contains past (retrospective) and future (prospective) material to be compensated to have a balance. Collective unconscious is comprises a deeper level of unconsciousness and is made up of powerful emotional symbols called archetypes. Archetypes are derived from the emotional reactions of our ancestors. Carl Jung was interested in the deepest universal aspects of personality and expanded ideas of the unconscious to include emotionally charged images and expanded ideas of all generations.
He also gives the concepts of complexes meaning emotionally charged thoughts and feeling on a particular them. Another thing is he describes personality as being comprised of competing forces pulling against one another to reach equilibrium. Alfred Adler focused on the social world and its identity. Adler and Freud’s differences were in the origin of motivation. Freud theory was based on prime motivations that were built on pleasure and sexuality. Adler’s theory is based on motivations that are more complex. Adler was much more concerned with social conditions and saw the need to take preventive measures to avoid disturbances in personality. He believed personality problems can be avoided by using detailed knowledge about individuals to construct healthier social environment.
Personality typology based loosely on Greek notions of the bodily humors. He believed in positive goal oriented and nature of human kind. There are two characteristics that I agree with which are: Jung’s personal unconscious and Alder’s superiority complex. There are two characteristics that I disagree with which are: Freud’s latency stage and Alder’s collective unconscious. Psychosexual Development has five stages: oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, Oedipus complex, Electra complex, latency stage, and genital stage. Oral stage is where we satisfy our hunger and thirst. Anal stage is where we feel relief when defecating. Phallic stage is where adolescents focus on genitals. Oedipus stage is where a young boy wants to kill his father to marry his beloved mother. This is the opposite for girls in the Electra complex.
Latency stage is where adolescents focus more on academics and friendships. Genital stage is where marks the beginning of an adult life of normal sexual relations, marriage, and child-rearing. Challenges from the outer environment and from our inner urges threaten us with anxiety; there are three defense mechanisms that I can relate to very well. The three are reaction formation, displacement, and rationalization. The processes that the ego uses to distort reality to protect itself are called defense mechanisms. Reaction formation is the process of pushing away threatening impulses by overemphasizing the opposite in one’s thoughts and actions, e.g. Josephine was a classmate of mine in 2008. A lot of my peers in that year were exposing themselves to be either gay or lesbian.
Josephine’s religious and outspoken background made her very judgmental towards her peers. Ultimately, the summer of 2009 being in the spotlight of high school she had a girlfriend. Displacement is the shifting of the target of one’s unconscious fears and desires, e.g. Jason and I get into arguments all the time just as any normal couple. The dishes were not washes like I had asked. For some reason my frustration was at an all-time high. The dog tipped over the trash can in the kitchen and in the bathroom. Not to mention the dog feces in the living. I had enough so I kicked my dog, Charles. Rationalization is a mechanism involving post-hoc logical explanations for behaviors that were actually driven by internal unconscious motives, e.g.
I want to move back home so that it will be easier for the baby and I just know it would be so much easier and a better opportunity for me to concentrate on school, but the underlying is that I just want to leave my current home. In conclusion, psychoanalytic theory was developed by Freud. This is a system in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior. Both Freud and Jung believed ego played a huge part in personality and the unconscious sexuality.
Adler and Freud’s theory differed by the origin of motivation. Freud believes in prime motivations were pleasure and sexuality. Adler believes in human motivations that are more complex. Like Jun Adler believed in the importance of the teleological aspects, or goal-directedness of human nature. Difference in Freud’s and Adler’s philosophies was that Adler was much more concerned with social conditions. He saw the need to take preventive measures to avoid disturbances in personality. In all of these theories helped open new approac hes to human nature and psychotherapy.
Friedman, H. S., & Schustack, M. W. (2011). Personality. Classic Theories and Modern Research (5th ed.). Retrieved from University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.